Background: A multicenter phase 2 trial analysed chemoselection with docetaxel plus 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin (DCF) induction chemotherapy (ICT) and subsequent conversion surgery (CS) for locally advanced unresectable esophageal cancer. This study presents updated 3-year analyses to further characterize the impact of DCF-ICT followed by CS. Methods: Esophageal cancer patients with clinical T4 disease, unresectable supraclavicular lymph node metastasis, or both were eligible for this study. The treatment starts with DCF-ICT, followed by CS if the cancer is resectable, or by concurrent chemoradiation if it is not resectable. This updated analysis presents 3-year overall survival (OS), 3-year progression-free survival (PFS), and pattern of relapse. Results: The median follow-up period for the patients surviving without death was 39.3 months. The estimated 1-year OS was 66.7%, and the lower limit of the 80% confidence interval (CI) was 54.6%. The estimated 3-year OS was 46.6% (95% CI 34.2–63.5%). The OS for the patients who underwent R0 resection (n = 19) was significantly longer than for those who did not (3-year OS: 71.4% vs. 30.1%). The estimated 1-year PFS was 50.6%, and the 3-year PFS was 39.6%. The PFS for R0 was significantly longer than for non-R0 (3-year PFS: 61.3% vs 25.0%). Recurrence or progression at the primary site was observed in 31% of the non-R0 group. The rate of distant metastasis did not differ significantly between the non-R0 and R0 groups (21% vs 16%). Conclusions: Long-term follow-up evaluation confirmed that DCF chemoselection aimed at CS is feasible and promising in terms of survival for patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer.
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