Real-time recording of the kinetics of systemically administered drugs in in vivo microenvironments may accelerate the development of effective medical therapies. However, conventional methods require considerable analyte quantities, have low sampling rates and do not address how drug kinetics correlate with target function over time. Here, we describe the development and application of a drug-sensing system consisting of a glass microelectrode and a microsensor composed of boron-doped diamond with a tip of around 40 μm in diameter. We show that, in the Guinea pig cochlea, the system can measure - simultaneously and in real time - changes in the concentration of bumetanide (a diuretic that is ototoxic but applicable to epilepsy treatment) and the endocochlear potential underlying hearing. In the rat brain, we tracked the kinetics of the drug and the local field potentials representing neuronal activity. We also show that the actions of the antiepileptic drug lamotrigine and the anticancer reagent doxorubicin can be monitored in vivo. Our microsensing system offers the potential to detect pharmacological and physiological responses that might otherwise remain undetected.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Biomedical Engineering
- Computer Science Applications