Background We sought to develop a novel risk assessment tool to predict the clinical outcomes after heat-related illness. Methods Prospective, multicenter observational study. Patients who transferred to emergency hospitals in Japan with heat-related illness were registered. The sample was divided into two parts: 60% to construct the score and 40% to validate it. A binary logistic regression model was used to predict hospital admission as a primary outcome. The resulting model was transformed into a scoring system. Results A total of 3,001 eligible patients were analyzed. There was no difference in variables between development and validation cohorts. Based on the result of a logistic regression model in the development phase (n = 1,805), the J-ERATO score was defined as the sum of the six binary components in the prehospital setting (respiratory rate22 /min, Glasgow coma scale<15, systolic blood pressure100 mmHg, heart rate100 bpm, body temperature38C, and age65 y), for a total score ranging from 0 to 6. In the validation phase (n = 1,196), the score had excellent discrimination (C-statistic 0.84; 95% CI 0.79–0.89, p<0.0001) and calibration (P>0.2 by Hosmer-Lemeshow test). The observed proportion of hospital admission increased with increasing J-ERATO score (score = 0, 5.0%; score = 1, 15.0%; score = 2, 24.6%; score = 3, 38.6%; score = 4, 68.0%; score = 5, 85.2%; score = 6, 96.4%). Multivariate analyses showed that the J-ERATO score was an independent positive predictor of hospital admission (adjusted OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 2.06–2.87; P<0.001), intensive care unit (ICU) admission (3.73; 2.95–4.72; P<0.001) and in-hospital mortality (1.65; 1.18–2.32; P = 0.004). Conclusions The J-ERATO score is simply assessed and can facilitate the identification of patients with higher risk of heat-related hospitalization. This scoring system is also significantly associated with the higher likelihood of ICU admission and in-hospital mortality after heat-related hospitalization.
ASJC Scopus subject areas