A Novel Flow Dynamics Study of the Intracranial Veins Using Whole Brain Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography Angiography

Katsuhiro Mizutani, Nobuhiko Arai, Masahiro Toda, Takenori Akiyama, Hirokazu Fujiwara, Masahiro Jinzaki, Kazunari Yoshida

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: The flow dynamics of the intracranial venous channels are fundamentally important for understanding intracranial physiology and pathophysiology. However, the method clinically applicable to the evaluation of the flow dynamics of the intracranial venous system has not been well described in the reported data. We have developed a new method to evaluate intracranial venous flow direction and velocity using 4-dimensional (4D) computed tomography angiography (CTA). The aim of the present study was to verify the accuracy and validity of 4D-CTA in a clinical setting. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 97 veins from 26 patients (16 cases of arteriovenous shunt disease, 9 intracranial tumor cases, and 1 cerebral aneurysm case) who had undergone both 4D-CTA and conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Using 4D-CTA, we analyzed the time-density curve with gamma distribution extrapolation and obtained the direction of the flow and flow velocity of each vein. The direction of the flow in 4D-CTA was also collated with that obtained using conventional DSA to verify the experimental method. Results: The direction of the flow determined by 4D-CTA was consistent with that of conventional DSA in 94.8% of cases. The average venous flow velocity was 64.3 mm/second and 81.8 mm/second, respectively, in the antegrade and retrograde channels affected by arteriovenous shunts. Conclusions: The present flow analysis using 4D-CTA enabled us to evaluate the direction and velocity of intracranial venous flow. Other than some limitations, the presented method is reliable and its potential for application in clinical settings is promising.

Original languageEnglish
JournalWorld neurosurgery
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2019 Jan 1


  • 4D-CTA
  • Flow direction
  • Flow dynamics
  • Flow velocity
  • Intracranial vein

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology

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