A novel nuclear localization signal in the human single-minded proteins SIM1 and SIM2

Akiko Yamaki, Jun Kudo, Nobuyoshi Shimizu, Yoshiko Shimizu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Human Single-minded 1 (SIM1) and SIM2 genes were found as homologs of Drosophila sim gene which plays a key role in the midline cell lineage of the central nervous system. SIM proteins belong to a family of transcription factors, called bHLH/PAS. Here we examined the intracellular localization of SIM proteins using the expression constructs of whole SIM2 or SIM1 protein fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The transient expression analysis revealed the nuclear localization of SIM proteins in the cultured cells. To identify the nuclear localization signal, we made expression constructs of EGFP-fusion protein consisting of various portions of SIM proteins. Transfection assay showed the presence of NLS activity in the small region of 23 and 21 amino acid residues at the central part of SIM2 and SIM1 proteins, respectively. Further analysis with amino acid substitution of this small region of SIM2 protein revealed the critical role of five amino acid residues (Arg367, Lys373, Pro385, Tyr386, and Gln389) in NLS activity. The consensus sequence of RKxxKx[K/R]xxxxKxKxRxxPY was estimated as a presumptive NLS in SIM proteins from various species. Thus, the NLS consisting of a cluster of basic amino acids with Pro and Tyr at the C-terminal end is novel and well conserved in the SIM proteins during evolution.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)482-488
Number of pages7
JournalBiochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Volume313
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Jan 16

Fingerprint

Nuclear Localization Signals
Proteins
Amino Acids
Genes
Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
Basic Amino Acids
Consensus Sequence
Neurology
Cell Lineage
Amino Acid Substitution
Drosophila
Transfection
Cultured Cells
Assays
Substitution reactions
Fusion reactions
Central Nervous System
Cells

Keywords

  • Amino acid substitution
  • Deletion constructs
  • Enhanced green fluorescent protein
  • Nuclear localization signal
  • SIM2
  • single-minded 1
  • Transfection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Biophysics
  • Molecular Biology

Cite this

A novel nuclear localization signal in the human single-minded proteins SIM1 and SIM2. / Yamaki, Akiko; Kudo, Jun; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi; Shimizu, Yoshiko.

In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol. 313, No. 3, 16.01.2004, p. 482-488.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Yamaki, Akiko ; Kudo, Jun ; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi ; Shimizu, Yoshiko. / A novel nuclear localization signal in the human single-minded proteins SIM1 and SIM2. In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2004 ; Vol. 313, No. 3. pp. 482-488.
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