A proctoring system to manage the learning curve associated with the introduction of transcatheter aortic valve implantation in Japan

On behalf of the OCEAN-TAVI Registry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)


As transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) requires multidisciplinary collaboration, operators and the entire heart team must overcome a steep learning curve. A web-based screening and traditional on-site proctoring system were developed for the introduction of TAVI in Japan. To assess the learning curve involved with the introduction of TAVI under the supervision of a novel proctoring system. We divided 749 consecutive patients enrolled in the OCEAN-TAVI study between October 2013 and August 2015 into the trans-femoral (TF, n = 608) and transapical (TA, n = 141) approach groups to compare outcomes in patients who underwent TAVI during the early proctoring period (proctoring group) and after the procedures began to be performed independently (independent group). The primary endpoint was the rate of composite events regarding early safety (at 30 days) according to the valve academic research consortium-2 criteria. For TF-TAVI, the logistic EuroSCORE and the rate of peripheral artery disease were significantly lower during the independent period. The rate of device success significantly increased during the independent period (90.5 vs. 81.8%, p = 0.005). The rate of the primary endpoint was significantly reduced during the independent period compared to that during the proctoring period for TA-TAVI (21.3 vs. 37.9%, p = 0.031); however, no difference was observed for TF-TAVI (16.8 vs. 13.1%, p = 0.283). No deaths occurred within 30 days during the proctoring period for TF-TAVI. After adjustment using propensity score matching, the procedure time for TF-TAVI (88 ± 43 vs. 102 ± 36 min, p = 0.004) and the rate of life-threatening bleeding for TA-TAVI (3.6 vs. 25%, p = 0.026) reduced during the independent period compared to the values during the proctoring period. During the introduction of TAVI under the supervision of a new proctoring system in Japan, clinical outcomes and technical aspects improved significantly. There are differences in the steepness of the learning curve between TF-TAVI and TA-TAVI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalHeart and Vessels
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2017 Dec 11



  • Heart team education
  • Learning curve
  • Proctoring system
  • Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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