Ectodomain shedding (shedding) is a posttranslational modification mechanism, which liberates extracellular domains of membrane proteins through juxtamembrane processing. Because shedding alters cell characteristics in a rapid and irreversible manner, it must be strictly regulated. However, the regulatory mechanisms of shedding in response to environmental changes remain obscure. To evaluate the regulatory mechanisms of endogenous shedding, we previously developed a proteomic screening system to identify shedding targets. This system revealed a comprehensive picture of membrane proteins shed under defined conditions. In this study, we have improved the screening system to compare the shedding patterns in a mouse macrophage cell line treated with two different shedding inducers, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and 12. O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). We show here that LPS simultaneously activates the shedding of multiple membrane proteins. We further show that TPA specifically activates the shedding of αM/β2 integrin (Mac-1), which was not shed upon LPS-stimulation of macrophages. These results clearly demonstrate that the regulation of endogenous membrane protein shedding is both stimulus- and substrate-specific. Biological significance: The shedding targets reported to date play pivotal roles in a variety of biological phenomena, including the immunological response, cell growth, cell adhesion and cell movement. In addition, several disease-related membrane proteins are shedding targets. Thus, understanding the regulation of shedding is important for the elucidation of pathogenesis and the development of therapeutic strategies. We submit that a comprehensive characterization of endogenous shedding is indispensable for understanding the regulatory mechanisms of shedding, and thus have developed a proteomic screening system to identify shedding targets. In this study, using our screening system, we demonstrate that different extracellular stimuli activate different types of shedding, even in a single cell. Our results prove that this proteomic approach is quite effective for the elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms of shedding.
- Ectodomain shedding
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