A simple method to estimate populational 24-h urinary sodium and potassium excretion using a casual urine specimen

Taichiro Tanaka, Tomonori Okamura, K. Miura, T. Kadowaki, H. Ueshima, H. Nakagawa, T. Hashimoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

276 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In order to estimate the salt and potassium intake in a population and to compare their annual trends, we developed a simple method to estimate population mean levels of 24-h urinary sodium (24HUNaV) and potassium (24HUKV) excretion from spot urine specimens collected at any time. Using 591 Japanese data items from the INTERSALT study as a gold standard, we developed formulas to estimate 24-h urinary creatinine (24HUCrV), 24HUNaV and 24HUKV using both spot and 24-h urine collection samples. To examine the accuracy of the formulas, we applied these equations to 513 external manual workers. The obtained formulas were as follows: (1) PRCr (mg/day) = -2.04 × age + 14.89 × weight (kg) + 16.14 × height (cm) - 2244.45; (2) estimated 24HUNaV (mEq/day) = 21.98 × XNa0.392; (3) estimated 24HUKV (mEq/day) = 7.59 × XK0.431; where PRCr = predicted value of 24HUCr, SUNa = Na concentration in the spot voiding urine, SUK = K concentration in the spot voiding urine, SUCr = creatinine concentration in the spot voiding urine, XNa (or XK) = SUNa (or SUK)/SUCr × PRCr. In the external group, there was a significant but small difference between the estimated and measured values in sodium (24.0 mmol/day) and potassium (3.8 mmol/day) excretion. In every quintile divided by the estimated 24HUNaV or 24HUKV, the measured values were parallel to the estimated values. In conclusion, although this method is not suitable for estimating individual Na and K excretion, these formulas are considered useful for estimating population mean levels of 24-h Na and K excretion, and are available for comparing different populations, as well as indicating annual trends of a particular population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)97-103
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Human Hypertension
Volume16
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2002 Jan 1
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Potassium
Sodium
Urine
Population
Creatinine
Urine Specimen Collection
Salts
Weights and Measures

Keywords

  • Creatinine
  • Potassium
  • Sodium
  • Urine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

Cite this

A simple method to estimate populational 24-h urinary sodium and potassium excretion using a casual urine specimen. / Tanaka, Taichiro; Okamura, Tomonori; Miura, K.; Kadowaki, T.; Ueshima, H.; Nakagawa, H.; Hashimoto, T.

In: Journal of Human Hypertension, Vol. 16, No. 2, 01.01.2002, p. 97-103.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tanaka, Taichiro ; Okamura, Tomonori ; Miura, K. ; Kadowaki, T. ; Ueshima, H. ; Nakagawa, H. ; Hashimoto, T. / A simple method to estimate populational 24-h urinary sodium and potassium excretion using a casual urine specimen. In: Journal of Human Hypertension. 2002 ; Vol. 16, No. 2. pp. 97-103.
@article{f9ae495f7bbc4e0a92e324b510484484,
title = "A simple method to estimate populational 24-h urinary sodium and potassium excretion using a casual urine specimen",
abstract = "In order to estimate the salt and potassium intake in a population and to compare their annual trends, we developed a simple method to estimate population mean levels of 24-h urinary sodium (24HUNaV) and potassium (24HUKV) excretion from spot urine specimens collected at any time. Using 591 Japanese data items from the INTERSALT study as a gold standard, we developed formulas to estimate 24-h urinary creatinine (24HUCrV), 24HUNaV and 24HUKV using both spot and 24-h urine collection samples. To examine the accuracy of the formulas, we applied these equations to 513 external manual workers. The obtained formulas were as follows: (1) PRCr (mg/day) = -2.04 × age + 14.89 × weight (kg) + 16.14 × height (cm) - 2244.45; (2) estimated 24HUNaV (mEq/day) = 21.98 × XNa0.392; (3) estimated 24HUKV (mEq/day) = 7.59 × XK0.431; where PRCr = predicted value of 24HUCr, SUNa = Na concentration in the spot voiding urine, SUK = K concentration in the spot voiding urine, SUCr = creatinine concentration in the spot voiding urine, XNa (or XK) = SUNa (or SUK)/SUCr × PRCr. In the external group, there was a significant but small difference between the estimated and measured values in sodium (24.0 mmol/day) and potassium (3.8 mmol/day) excretion. In every quintile divided by the estimated 24HUNaV or 24HUKV, the measured values were parallel to the estimated values. In conclusion, although this method is not suitable for estimating individual Na and K excretion, these formulas are considered useful for estimating population mean levels of 24-h Na and K excretion, and are available for comparing different populations, as well as indicating annual trends of a particular population.",
keywords = "Creatinine, Potassium, Sodium, Urine",
author = "Taichiro Tanaka and Tomonori Okamura and K. Miura and T. Kadowaki and H. Ueshima and H. Nakagawa and T. Hashimoto",
year = "2002",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1038/sj.jhh.1001307",
language = "English",
volume = "16",
pages = "97--103",
journal = "Journal of Human Hypertension",
issn = "0950-9240",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A simple method to estimate populational 24-h urinary sodium and potassium excretion using a casual urine specimen

AU - Tanaka, Taichiro

AU - Okamura, Tomonori

AU - Miura, K.

AU - Kadowaki, T.

AU - Ueshima, H.

AU - Nakagawa, H.

AU - Hashimoto, T.

PY - 2002/1/1

Y1 - 2002/1/1

N2 - In order to estimate the salt and potassium intake in a population and to compare their annual trends, we developed a simple method to estimate population mean levels of 24-h urinary sodium (24HUNaV) and potassium (24HUKV) excretion from spot urine specimens collected at any time. Using 591 Japanese data items from the INTERSALT study as a gold standard, we developed formulas to estimate 24-h urinary creatinine (24HUCrV), 24HUNaV and 24HUKV using both spot and 24-h urine collection samples. To examine the accuracy of the formulas, we applied these equations to 513 external manual workers. The obtained formulas were as follows: (1) PRCr (mg/day) = -2.04 × age + 14.89 × weight (kg) + 16.14 × height (cm) - 2244.45; (2) estimated 24HUNaV (mEq/day) = 21.98 × XNa0.392; (3) estimated 24HUKV (mEq/day) = 7.59 × XK0.431; where PRCr = predicted value of 24HUCr, SUNa = Na concentration in the spot voiding urine, SUK = K concentration in the spot voiding urine, SUCr = creatinine concentration in the spot voiding urine, XNa (or XK) = SUNa (or SUK)/SUCr × PRCr. In the external group, there was a significant but small difference between the estimated and measured values in sodium (24.0 mmol/day) and potassium (3.8 mmol/day) excretion. In every quintile divided by the estimated 24HUNaV or 24HUKV, the measured values were parallel to the estimated values. In conclusion, although this method is not suitable for estimating individual Na and K excretion, these formulas are considered useful for estimating population mean levels of 24-h Na and K excretion, and are available for comparing different populations, as well as indicating annual trends of a particular population.

AB - In order to estimate the salt and potassium intake in a population and to compare their annual trends, we developed a simple method to estimate population mean levels of 24-h urinary sodium (24HUNaV) and potassium (24HUKV) excretion from spot urine specimens collected at any time. Using 591 Japanese data items from the INTERSALT study as a gold standard, we developed formulas to estimate 24-h urinary creatinine (24HUCrV), 24HUNaV and 24HUKV using both spot and 24-h urine collection samples. To examine the accuracy of the formulas, we applied these equations to 513 external manual workers. The obtained formulas were as follows: (1) PRCr (mg/day) = -2.04 × age + 14.89 × weight (kg) + 16.14 × height (cm) - 2244.45; (2) estimated 24HUNaV (mEq/day) = 21.98 × XNa0.392; (3) estimated 24HUKV (mEq/day) = 7.59 × XK0.431; where PRCr = predicted value of 24HUCr, SUNa = Na concentration in the spot voiding urine, SUK = K concentration in the spot voiding urine, SUCr = creatinine concentration in the spot voiding urine, XNa (or XK) = SUNa (or SUK)/SUCr × PRCr. In the external group, there was a significant but small difference between the estimated and measured values in sodium (24.0 mmol/day) and potassium (3.8 mmol/day) excretion. In every quintile divided by the estimated 24HUNaV or 24HUKV, the measured values were parallel to the estimated values. In conclusion, although this method is not suitable for estimating individual Na and K excretion, these formulas are considered useful for estimating population mean levels of 24-h Na and K excretion, and are available for comparing different populations, as well as indicating annual trends of a particular population.

KW - Creatinine

KW - Potassium

KW - Sodium

KW - Urine

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85047696263&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85047696263&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1038/sj.jhh.1001307

DO - 10.1038/sj.jhh.1001307

M3 - Article

VL - 16

SP - 97

EP - 103

JO - Journal of Human Hypertension

JF - Journal of Human Hypertension

SN - 0950-9240

IS - 2

ER -