Synaptotagmin (Syt) family members consist of six separate domains: a short amino terminus, a single transmembrane domain, a spacer domain, a C2A domain, a C2B domain and a short carboxyl (C) terminus. Despite sharing the same domain structures, several synaptotagmin isoforms shew distinct subcellular localization. Syt IV is mainly localized at the Golgi, while Syt I, a possible Ca2+-sensor for secretory vesicles, is localized at dense-core vesicles and synaptic-like microvesicles in PC12 cells. In this study, we sought to identify the region responsible for the Golgi localization of Syt IV by immunocytochemical and biochemical analyses as a means of defining the distinct subcellular localization of the synaptotagmin family. We found that the unique C-terminus of the spacer domain (amino acid residues 73-144) between the transmembrane domain and the C2A domain is essential for the Golgi localization of Syt IV. In addition, the short C-terminus is probably involved in proper folding of the protein, especially the C2B domain. Without the C-terminus, Syt IVΔC proteins are not targeted to the Golgi and seem to colocalize with an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker (i.e. induce crystalloid ER-like structures). On the basis of these results, we propose that the divergent spacer domain among synaptotagmin isoforms may contain certain signals that determine the final destination of each isoform.
- C2 domain
- Immediate early genes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience