Summary: The clinical characteristics and prognostic relevance of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) with myelodysplastic features remains to be clarified in children. We prospectively examined 443 newly diagnosed patients in a multicentre clinical trial for paediatric de novo AML, and found 'AML with myelodysplasia-related changes' (AML-MRC) according to the 2008 World Health Organization classification in 93 (21·0%), in whom 59 were diagnosed from myelodysplasia-related cytogenetics alone, 28 from multilineage dysplasia alone and six from a combination of both. Compared with 111 patients with 'AML, not otherwise specified' (AML-NOS), patients with 'AML-MRC' presented at a younger age, with a lower white blood cell count, higher incidence of 20-30% bone marrow blasts, unfavourable cytogenetics and a lower frequency of Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD), NPM1 and CEBPA mutations. Complete remission rate and 3-year probability of event-free survival were significantly worse in 'AML-MRC' patients (67·7 vs. 85·6%, P < 0·01, 37·1% vs. 53·8%, P = 0·02, respectively), but 3-year overall survival and relapse-free survival were comparable with 'AML-NOS' patients. By multivariate analysis, FLT3-ITD was solely associated with worse overall survival. These results support the distinctive features of the category 'AML-MRC' even in children.
- Multilineage dysplasia
- Paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia
- WHO classification
ASJC Scopus subject areas