Age-Dependent and Seasonal Changes in Menstrual Cycle Length and Body Temperature Based on Big Data

Takayuki Tatsumi, Makiko Sampei, Kazuki Saito, Yuka Honda, Yuka Okazaki, Naoko Arata, Kanako Narumi, Naho Morisaki, Tomonori Ishikawa, Satoshi Narumi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of age and season on menstrual cycle length and basal body temperature (BBT). We also examined the effects of climate on cycle length and BBT, taking into account Japanese geographic and social characteristics. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed data from 6 million menstrual cycles entered into a smartphone application from 310,000 females from 2016 to 2017. Only those who entered more than 10 cycles in 2 years were included. Generalized estimation equations were used to adjust for confounding factors and for within-person correlations of multiple records. Multiple regression analysis was conducted, with age, external average temperature, precipitation amount, and sunshine hours as confounding factors. RESULTS: The mean menstrual cycle length increased from age 15-23 years, subsequently decreased up to age 45 years, and then increased again. Average follicular phase body temperature showed no significant age-dependent changes, but luteal phase body temperature gradually increased up to 29 years and then stabilized and started to decrease after age 42 years. A significant association between external temperature and body temperature (follicular and luteal phase) was observed, though menstrual cycle length did not show such an association. CONCLUSION: These results, derived from data self-entered into a smartphone application, revealed underrecognized age-dependent and seasonal changes in menstrual cycle length and BBT, which will contribute to a better understanding of female reproductive health in the modern world.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)666-674
Number of pages9
JournalObstetrics and gynecology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Oct 1
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology


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