Tardigrade research in Japan dates back over 100 years, and to date, 167 species of this ecdysozoan phylum have been reported from the country. Of these species, the Macrobiotus hufelandi complex has been represented only by the nominal taxon of this group, Macrobiotus hufelandi. In this article, a new species of the hufelandi group from Japan, Macrobiotus shonaicus sp. nov., is described using integrative taxonomy. In addition to the detailed morphological and morphometric data, obtained using phase contrast light microscopy (PCM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we provide DNA sequences of four molecular markers (both nuclear and mitochondrial). The new species belongs to the persimilis subgroup and is most similar to M. anemone from USA, M. naskreckii from Mozambique, and M. patagonicus from Argentina, but it can be easily distinguished from these species by the presence of thin flexible filaments on terminal discs of the egg process. By the latter character, the new species is most similar to M. paulinae and M. polypiformis, but it can be easily distinguished from them by having a solid egg surface between egg processes (i.e., without pores or reticulum). A phylogenetic analysis of available DNA sequences of the COI marker for the hufelandi group revealed that the new species clusters with the two other species that exhibit filaments on egg process discs (M. paulinae and M. polypiformis) and with two species that have entire egg processes modified into filaments (M. kristenseni and M. scoticus). All five species form a clade distinct from all other sequenced species of the hufelandi group with typical mushroom- or inverted goblet-shaped egg processes, which may suggest that the ancestor of the five species with atypical egg processes had a mutation allowing derivations from the mushroom or inverted chalice-like shape of egg processes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)