PURPOSE. Resolvins and lipoxins are lipid mediators generated from essential polyunsaturated fatty acids that are the first dual anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving signals identified in the resolution phase of inflammation. Here the authors investigated the potential of aspirin-triggered lipoxin (LX) A4 analog (ATLa), resolving (Rv) D1, and RvE1, in regulating angiogenesis in a murine model. METHODS. ATLa and RvE1 receptor expression was tested in different corneal cell populations by RT-PCR. Corneal neovascularization (CNV) was induced by suture or micropellet (IL- 1β, VEGF-A) placement. Mice were then treated with ATLa, RvD1, RvE1, or vehicle, subconjunctivally at 48-hour intervals. Infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages was quantified after immunofluorescence staining. The mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines, VEGFs, and VEGFRs were analyzed by real-time PCR. CNV was evaluated intravitally and morphometrically. RESULTS. The receptors for LXA4, ALX/Fpr-rs-2 and for RvE1, ChemR23 were each expressed by epithelium, stromal keratocytes, and infiltrated CD11b+ cells in corneas. Compared to the vehicle-treated eye, ATLa-, RvD1-, and RvE1-treated eyes had reduced numbers of infiltrating neutrophils and macrophages and reduced mRNA expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β, VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and VEGFR2. Animals treated with these mediators had significantly suppressed suture-induced or IL-1_-induced hemangiogenesis (HA) but not lymphangiogenesis. Interestingly, only the application of ATLa significantly suppressed VEGF-A-induced HA. CONCLUSIONS. ATLa, RvE1, and RvD1 all reduce inflammatory corneal HA by early regulation of resolution mechanisms in innate immune responses. In addition, ATLa directly inhibits VEGF-A-mediated angiogenesis and is the most potent inhibitor of NV among this new genus of dual anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Sensory Systems
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience