Arterial anatomical features of the upper palpebra

Kenichiro Kawai, Nobuaki Imanishi, Hideo Nakajima, Sadakazu Aiso, Masao Kakibuchi, Ko Hosokawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


The arterial anatomical features of the upper palpebra were examined in both sides of seven fresh cadavers that had been systemically injected with a lead oxide/gelatin mixture. All specimens were stereoscopically radiographed for analysis of the three-dimensional structure of the arteries and were macroscopically dissected for observation of the relationships between the arteries and the other tissues. Cross-sections were prepared from one specimen and examined histologically. In all cases, there were four arterial arcades in the upper palpebra, namely, the marginal, peripheral, superficial orbital, and deep orbital arcades. Each arcade provided small vertical branches. The vertical branches coursed on both sides of the orbicularis oculi muscle and on both sides of the tarsal plate. From these small vertical branches, fine vessels branched off to the skin, muscle, and tarsal plate. These findings are important for avoiding complications such as bleeding and are useful for designing local flaps, such as switch flaps, for reconstructive surgical procedures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)479-484
Number of pages6
JournalPlastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Feb 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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