Articulation strategies for English liquids used by Japanese speakers

Jeff Moore, Jason Shaw, Shigeto Kawahara, Takayuki Arai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


This study examines the tongue shapes used by Japanese speakers to produce the English liquids/r/ and /l/. Four native Japanese speakers of varying levels of English acquisition and one North American English speaker were recorded both acoustically and with Electromagnetic Articulography. Seven distinct articulation strategies were identified. Results indicate that the least advanced speaker uses a single articulation strategy for both sounds. Intermediate speakers used a wide range of articulations, while the most advanced non-native speaker relied on a single strategy for each sound.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)75-83
Number of pages9
JournalAcoustical Science and Technology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jan 1


  • Articulatory phonetics
  • Foreign accent
  • Second language acquisition
  • Speech production

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics

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