Purpose: Applying regenerated cartilage in a clinical setting requires noninvasive evaluation to detect the maturity of cartilage tissue. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of articular cartilage is well accepted and has been applied clinically in recent years. We attempt to establish a noninvasive method to evaluate the maturity of regenerated cartilage tissue using gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging. Methods: To reconstruct cartilaginous tissue, we embedded articular chondrocytes harvested from bovine humeral head in agarose gel and cultured the cells in vitro up to 4 weeks. The fixed charge density (FCD) of the cartilage was determined using MRI gadolinium exclusion method. The sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content was determined by dimethylmethylene blue dye-binding assay. Results: The sGAG content and FCD of the regenerated cartilage increased with duration of culture. In the T1Gd maps, the [Gd-DTPA2-] in the specimen decreased, and the boundary between the sample disk and the bath solution of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) became clearer as time in culture increased. In the linear regression analysis, FCD and sGAG content correlated significantly. Conclusion: Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging measurements can be useful predictors of the degree of cartilaginous tissue formation.
- Fixed charge density
- Regenerated cartilage
- Sulfated glycosaminoglycan
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging