To assess quantitatively the risks of ophthalmic beta-blocking agents for cardiovascular and respiratory adverse reactions, we analyzed the binding kinetics of beta-blocking agents to the beta-1 and beta-2 adrenoceptors. The relationship between the occupancies for beta-1 and beta-2 adrenoceptors and the effects on the exercise pulse rate or the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) after topical administration of carteolol, befunolol, timolol and betaxolol was analyzed using a ternary complex model. The beta-1 and beta-2 receptor occupancies after ophthalmic administration were calculated to be quite high as well as those after oral administration. The maximum occupancies for beta-1 and beta-2 receptors after ordinary ophthalmic administration were 52% and 88% for carteolol, 52% and 61% for befunolol, 62% and 82% for timolol, and 44% and 3% for betaxolol, respectively. Concave relationships were obtained between a decrease in exercise pulse rate and the beta-1 receptor occupancy and between a decrease in FEV1 and beta-2 receptor occupancy, respectively. Nasolacrimal occlusion was estimated to decrease the exercise pulse rate and FEV1 by 65% and 50%, respectively. The beta-1 and beta-2 adrenoceptor occupancies were proved to be the most appropriate indicators for cardiac and pulmonary adverse reactions evoked by ophthalmic beta-blocking agents.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)