Superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3), an antioxidant enzyme, is known as extracellular SOD (EC-SOD) because it is the predominant form in extracellular fluids. The diversity of plasma EC-SOD concentration is associated with the SOD3 p.R231G missense variant genotype. To clarify the association among SOD3 genotype, plasma EC-SOD concentration, and comorbidity in Oldest Old, we analyzed genome-wide associations with plasma EC-SOD concentration and associations between EC-SOD concentration and medical history classified by the SOD3 genotype in the Very Old (85–99 years old, n = 505) and Centenarians (over 100 years old, n = 595). The results revealed that SOD3 p.R231G was the most significant variant associated with plasma EC-SOD concentration. Although no significant difference was observed in medical histories between the SOD3 p.R231G variant non-carriers and carriers, higher EC-SOD concentration in plasma of SOD3 p.R231G variant non-carriers was associated with a high odds ratio for chronic kidney disease (OR = 2.70, 95% CI = 1.98–3.72) and low odds ratio for diabetes mellitus (DM) (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.39–0.95). Comparison with 11 plasma biomarkers for age-related disease showed that plasma EC-SOD concentration correlated with adiponectin and estimated glomerular filtration rate with creatinine correction; therefore, we deduced that EC-SOD co-operates with adiponectin and possesses beneficial functions for DM in the Oldest Old.
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