Association between dietary patterns and cognitive function among 70-year-old Japanese elderly: A cross-sectional analysis of the SONIC study

Hitomi Okubo, Hiroki Inagaki, Yasuyuki Gondo, Kei Kamide, Kazunori Ikebe, Yukie Masui, Yasumichi Arai, Tatsuro Ishizaki, Satoshi Sasaki, Takeshi Nakagawa, Mai Kabayama, Ken Sugimoto, Hiromi Rakugi, Yoshinobu Maeda, Madoka Ogawa, Yoshiko Lily Ishioka, Chisato Inomata, Hirochika Ryuno, Ryosuke Oguro, Koichi YamamotoYasushi Takeya, Yoichi Takami, Norihisa Ito

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: An increasing number of studies in Western countries have shown that healthy dietary patterns may have a protective effect against cognitive decline and dementia. However, information on this relationship among non-Western populations with different cultural settings is extremely limited. We aim to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and cognitive function among older Japanese people. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 635 community-dwelling people aged 69-71 years who participated in the prospective cohort study titled Septuagenarians, Octogenarians, Nonagenarians Investigation with Centenarians (SONIC). Diet was assessed over a one-month period with a validated, brief-type, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary patterns from thirty-three predefined food groups [energy-adjusted food (g/d)] were extracted by factor analysis. Cognitive function was assessed using the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J). Multivariate regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and cognitive function. Results: Three dietary patterns were identified: the 'Plant foods and fish', 'Rice and MISO soup', and 'Animal food' patterns. The 'Plant foods and fish' pattern, characterized by high intakes of green and other vegetables, soy products, seaweeds, mushrooms, potatoes, fruit, fish, and green tea, was significantly associated with a higher MoCA-J score [MoCA-J score per one-quartile increase in dietary pattern: β = 0.56 (95% CI: 0.33, 0.79), P for trend <0.001]. This association was still evident after adjustment for potential confounding factors [β = 0.41 (95% CI: 0.17, 0.65), P for trend <0.001]. In contrast, neither the 'Rice and MISO soup' nor the 'Animal food' pattern was related to cognitive function. To confirm the possibility of reverse causation we also conducted a sensitivity analysis excluding 186 subjects who reported substantial changes in their diet for any reason, but the results did not change materially. Conclusion: This preliminary cross-sectional study suggests that a diet with high intakes of vegetables, soy products, fruit, and fish may have a beneficial effect on cognitive function in older Japanese people. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding.

Original languageEnglish
Article number56
JournalNutrition Journal
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Sep 11

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Cognition
Cross-Sectional Studies
Fishes
Diet
Food
Edible Plants
Fruit
Prospective Studies
Independent Living
Seaweed
Agaricales
Tea
Solanum tuberosum
Causality
Statistical Factor Analysis
Dementia
Cohort Studies
Multivariate Analysis
Regression Analysis
Population

Keywords

  • Cognitive function Dietary pattern
  • Elderly
  • Factor analysis
  • Japanese

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Association between dietary patterns and cognitive function among 70-year-old Japanese elderly : A cross-sectional analysis of the SONIC study. / Okubo, Hitomi; Inagaki, Hiroki; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Kamide, Kei; Ikebe, Kazunori; Masui, Yukie; Arai, Yasumichi; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Kabayama, Mai; Sugimoto, Ken; Rakugi, Hiromi; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Ogawa, Madoka; Ishioka, Yoshiko Lily; Inomata, Chisato; Ryuno, Hirochika; Oguro, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Koichi; Takeya, Yasushi; Takami, Yoichi; Ito, Norihisa.

In: Nutrition Journal, Vol. 16, No. 1, 56, 11.09.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Okubo, H, Inagaki, H, Gondo, Y, Kamide, K, Ikebe, K, Masui, Y, Arai, Y, Ishizaki, T, Sasaki, S, Nakagawa, T, Kabayama, M, Sugimoto, K, Rakugi, H, Maeda, Y, Ogawa, M, Ishioka, YL, Inomata, C, Ryuno, H, Oguro, R, Yamamoto, K, Takeya, Y, Takami, Y & Ito, N 2017, 'Association between dietary patterns and cognitive function among 70-year-old Japanese elderly: A cross-sectional analysis of the SONIC study', Nutrition Journal, vol. 16, no. 1, 56. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12937-017-0273-2
Okubo, Hitomi ; Inagaki, Hiroki ; Gondo, Yasuyuki ; Kamide, Kei ; Ikebe, Kazunori ; Masui, Yukie ; Arai, Yasumichi ; Ishizaki, Tatsuro ; Sasaki, Satoshi ; Nakagawa, Takeshi ; Kabayama, Mai ; Sugimoto, Ken ; Rakugi, Hiromi ; Maeda, Yoshinobu ; Ogawa, Madoka ; Ishioka, Yoshiko Lily ; Inomata, Chisato ; Ryuno, Hirochika ; Oguro, Ryosuke ; Yamamoto, Koichi ; Takeya, Yasushi ; Takami, Yoichi ; Ito, Norihisa. / Association between dietary patterns and cognitive function among 70-year-old Japanese elderly : A cross-sectional analysis of the SONIC study. In: Nutrition Journal. 2017 ; Vol. 16, No. 1.
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T1 - Association between dietary patterns and cognitive function among 70-year-old Japanese elderly

T2 - A cross-sectional analysis of the SONIC study

AU - Okubo, Hitomi

AU - Inagaki, Hiroki

AU - Gondo, Yasuyuki

AU - Kamide, Kei

AU - Ikebe, Kazunori

AU - Masui, Yukie

AU - Arai, Yasumichi

AU - Ishizaki, Tatsuro

AU - Sasaki, Satoshi

AU - Nakagawa, Takeshi

AU - Kabayama, Mai

AU - Sugimoto, Ken

AU - Rakugi, Hiromi

AU - Maeda, Yoshinobu

AU - Ogawa, Madoka

AU - Ishioka, Yoshiko Lily

AU - Inomata, Chisato

AU - Ryuno, Hirochika

AU - Oguro, Ryosuke

AU - Yamamoto, Koichi

AU - Takeya, Yasushi

AU - Takami, Yoichi

AU - Ito, Norihisa

PY - 2017/9/11

Y1 - 2017/9/11

N2 - Background: An increasing number of studies in Western countries have shown that healthy dietary patterns may have a protective effect against cognitive decline and dementia. However, information on this relationship among non-Western populations with different cultural settings is extremely limited. We aim to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and cognitive function among older Japanese people. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 635 community-dwelling people aged 69-71 years who participated in the prospective cohort study titled Septuagenarians, Octogenarians, Nonagenarians Investigation with Centenarians (SONIC). Diet was assessed over a one-month period with a validated, brief-type, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary patterns from thirty-three predefined food groups [energy-adjusted food (g/d)] were extracted by factor analysis. Cognitive function was assessed using the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J). Multivariate regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and cognitive function. Results: Three dietary patterns were identified: the 'Plant foods and fish', 'Rice and MISO soup', and 'Animal food' patterns. The 'Plant foods and fish' pattern, characterized by high intakes of green and other vegetables, soy products, seaweeds, mushrooms, potatoes, fruit, fish, and green tea, was significantly associated with a higher MoCA-J score [MoCA-J score per one-quartile increase in dietary pattern: β = 0.56 (95% CI: 0.33, 0.79), P for trend <0.001]. This association was still evident after adjustment for potential confounding factors [β = 0.41 (95% CI: 0.17, 0.65), P for trend <0.001]. In contrast, neither the 'Rice and MISO soup' nor the 'Animal food' pattern was related to cognitive function. To confirm the possibility of reverse causation we also conducted a sensitivity analysis excluding 186 subjects who reported substantial changes in their diet for any reason, but the results did not change materially. Conclusion: This preliminary cross-sectional study suggests that a diet with high intakes of vegetables, soy products, fruit, and fish may have a beneficial effect on cognitive function in older Japanese people. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding.

AB - Background: An increasing number of studies in Western countries have shown that healthy dietary patterns may have a protective effect against cognitive decline and dementia. However, information on this relationship among non-Western populations with different cultural settings is extremely limited. We aim to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and cognitive function among older Japanese people. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 635 community-dwelling people aged 69-71 years who participated in the prospective cohort study titled Septuagenarians, Octogenarians, Nonagenarians Investigation with Centenarians (SONIC). Diet was assessed over a one-month period with a validated, brief-type, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary patterns from thirty-three predefined food groups [energy-adjusted food (g/d)] were extracted by factor analysis. Cognitive function was assessed using the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J). Multivariate regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and cognitive function. Results: Three dietary patterns were identified: the 'Plant foods and fish', 'Rice and MISO soup', and 'Animal food' patterns. The 'Plant foods and fish' pattern, characterized by high intakes of green and other vegetables, soy products, seaweeds, mushrooms, potatoes, fruit, fish, and green tea, was significantly associated with a higher MoCA-J score [MoCA-J score per one-quartile increase in dietary pattern: β = 0.56 (95% CI: 0.33, 0.79), P for trend <0.001]. This association was still evident after adjustment for potential confounding factors [β = 0.41 (95% CI: 0.17, 0.65), P for trend <0.001]. In contrast, neither the 'Rice and MISO soup' nor the 'Animal food' pattern was related to cognitive function. To confirm the possibility of reverse causation we also conducted a sensitivity analysis excluding 186 subjects who reported substantial changes in their diet for any reason, but the results did not change materially. Conclusion: This preliminary cross-sectional study suggests that a diet with high intakes of vegetables, soy products, fruit, and fish may have a beneficial effect on cognitive function in older Japanese people. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding.

KW - Cognitive function Dietary pattern

KW - Elderly

KW - Factor analysis

KW - Japanese

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