Background: The purposes of this study were to clarify the incidence of anxiety and depression among patients with chronic foot and ankle diseases and to examine the independent association of anxiety and depression with pain and quality of life. Methods: Patients who visited the foot and ankle clinic from April 2015 to November 2016 were recruited. Anxiety and depression in patients were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Pain and quality of life were evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS) and Self-Administered Foot Evaluation Questionnaire (SAFE-Q), respectively. Furthermore, patient characteristics, including age, sex, body mass index, pain in other body areas, social support, employment, and household income, were surveyed. A multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the independent association of anxiety and depression with pain and quality of life. A total of 250 patients were included in the analysis. Results: The prevalence of anxiety and depression was 30% and 27%, respectively. The VAS and all SAFE-Q subscale scores were significantly worse in patients with anxiety or depression than in patients without the same (median VAS 63 vs 49 for anxiety, P =.005; 68 vs 47 for depression, P <.001). Furthermore, the multiple regression analyses showed that the presence of anxiety (P =.02) and depression (P <.001) was independently associated with increased pain, and it led to low scores on all SAFE-Q subscales (P <.001 for all subscales). Conclusion: About 30% of patients with chronic foot and ankle disease had anxiety or depression. The presence of these psychological symptoms was independently associated with worse pain and impaired quality of life after controlling for patient characteristics. Clinicians need to recognize the possibility of concurrent anxiety and depression to provide a more holistic treatment for chronic foot and ankle disease. Level of Evidence: Level IV, case series.
- chronic pain
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine