Associations of high-density lipoprotein particle and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with alcohol intake, smoking, and body mass index: The INTERLIPID study


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Background: Recently, high-density lipoprotein particles (HDL-P) have been found to be more strongly inversely associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) risk than their counterpart, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). Given that lifestyle is among the first targets in CAD prevention, we compared the associations of HDL-P and HDL-C with selected lifestyle factors. Methods and Results: We examined 789 Japanese participants of the INTERLIPID Study: men (n=386) and women (n=403) aged 40–59 years in 1996–1998. Participants treated for dyslipidemias were excluded. Lifestyle factors included alcohol intake, smoking amount, and body mass index (BMI). Multivariable linear regression was used for cross-sectional analyses of these factors with HDL-P, HDL-C, HDL-P size subclasses (small, medium and large) and mean HDL-P size. In men, higher alcohol intake was associated with higher HDL-P and higher HDL-C. The associations of alcohol, however, were strongest with HDL-P. A higher smoking amount tended to be associated with lower HDL-P and HDL-C. In contrast, BMI was not associated with HDL-P, but was strongly inversely associated with HDL-C. While alcohol intake favored larger mean HDL-P size, smoking and BMI favored a lipid profile with smaller HDL-P subclasses and overall smaller mean HDL-P size. Similar, but generally weaker results were observed in women. Conclusions: Although both HDL-P and HDL-C are parameters of HDL, they have different associations with alcohol, smoking and BMI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2557-2565
Number of pages9
JournalCirculation Journal
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jan 1



  • Alcohol
  • Body mass index
  • High-density lipoprotein cholesterol
  • High-density lipoprotein particle
  • Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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