Background: Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) has been performed for inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) or residual pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA). We performed a systematic review to assess the efficacy and safety of BPA, especially compared to medical treatment or PEA. Methods: We reviewed all studies investigating pre- and post-treatment pulmonary hemodynamics, mortality, or complications from three electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Japan Medical Abstracts Society) prior to February 2017. From 26 studies retrieved, we selected 13 studies (493 patients): the 10 most recent ones including complete data from each institution, one study of residual pulmonary hypertension, and two studies comparing BPA with medical treatment or PEA. Results: No randomized controlled or prospective controlled studies comparing BPA with medical treatment or PEA were reported. The early mortality of BPA ranged from 0% to 14.3%; lung injury occurred in 7.0% to 31.4% (average sessions, 2.5–6.6). Mean pulmonary arterial pressure decreased from 39.4–56 to 20.9–36 mm Hg, and the 6-min walk distance increased from 191–405 to 359–501 m. The 2-year mortality of 80 patients undergoing BPA was significantly lower compared to 68 patients receiving medical treatment (1.3% vs. 13.2%); the risk ratio was 0.14 (95% confidence interval: 0.03–0.76). No significant difference was observed in the 2-year mortality between BPA (n=97) and PEA (n=63) patients. Conclusions: This systematic review suggests that BPA improves hemodynamics, has acceptable early mortality, and may improve long-term survival compared with medical treatment in inoperable CTEPH patients.
- Balloon pulmonary angioplasty
- Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension
- Medical treatment
- Pulmonary endarterectomy
- Pulmonary vasodilator
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine