Fanconi syndrome is a functional disorder of the proximal tubule, characterized by pan-aminoaciduria, glucosuria, hypophosphatemia, and metabolic acidosis. With the advancements in gene analysis technologies, several causative genes are identified for Fanconi syndrome. Several mitochondrial diseases cause Fanconi syndrome and various systemic symptoms; however, it is rare that the main clinical symptoms in such disorders are Fanconi syndrome without systematic active diseases like encephalomyopathy or cardiomyopathy. In this study, we analyzed two families exhibiting Fanconi syndrome, developmental disability and mildly elevated liver enzyme levels. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) detected compound heterozygous known and novel BCS1L mutations, which affect the assembly of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III, in both cases. The pathogenicity of these mutations has been established in several mitochondria-related functional analyses in this study. Mitochondrial diseases with isolated renal symptoms are uncommon; however, this study indicates that mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III deficiency due to BCS1L mutations cause Fanconi syndrome with developmental disability as the primary indications.
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