Being driven to work excessively hard: The evaluation of a two-factor measure of Workaholism in the Netherlands and Japan

Wilmar B. Schaufeli, Akihito Shimazu, Toon W. Taris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

184 Citations (Scopus)


Based on a conceptual analysis, a two-dimensional self-report questionnaire for assessing workaholism (work addiction) is proposed, including (1) working excessively hard and (2) working compulsively. Using independent explorative and confirmative samples that include employees from The Netherlands (N = 7,594) and Japan (N = 3,311), a questionnaire is developed and psychometrically evaluated. Results show that both scales (five items each) are internally consistent and that the hypothesized two-factor structure fits to the data of both countries. Furthermore, convergent validity was shown with measures of excess working time and discriminant validity was shown with measures of burnout and work engagement. Workaholics who work excessively hard and compulsively have a high relative risk on burnout and a low relative risk on work engagement. It is concluded that the two-dimensional measure-dubbed the Dutch Workaholism Scale (DUWAS)-is useful tool in future (cross-cultural) research on workaholism.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)320-348
Number of pages29
JournalCross-Cultural Research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Nov 1



  • Burnout
  • Cross-cultural measurement
  • Validation
  • Work engagement
  • Workaholism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anthropology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Psychology (miscellaneous)

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