Biomimetic synthesis of metal ion-doped hierarchical crystals using a gel matrix: Formation of cobalt-doped LiMn2O4 with improved electrochemical properties through a cobalt-doped MnCO3 precursor

Takao Kokubu, Yuya Oaki, Hiroaki Uchiyama, Eiji Hosono, Haoshen Zhou, Hiroaki Imai

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8 Citations (Scopus)


We have synthesized spinel type cobalt-doped LiMn2O4 (LiM-n2-yCoy O4, 0≤y≤0.367), a cathode material for a lithium-ion battery, with hierarchical sponge structures via the cobalt-doped MnCO3 (Mn1-xCoxCO3, 0≤x≤0.204) formed in an agar gel matrix. Biomimetic crystal growth in the gel matrix facilitates the generation of both an homogeneous solid solution and the hierarchical structures under ambient condition. The controlled composition and the hierarchical structure of the cobalt-doped MnCO3 precursor played an important role in the formation of the cobalt-doped LiMn 2O4. The charge-discharge reversible stability of the resultant LiMn1.947Co0.053O4 was improved to ca. 12% loss of the discharge capacity after 100 cycles, while pure LiMn 2O4 showed 24% loss of the discharge capacity after 100 cycles. The parallel control of the hierarchical structure and the composition in the precursor material through a biomimetic approach, promises the development of functional materials under mild conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)792-798
Number of pages7
JournalChemistry - An Asian Journal
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Apr 1



  • Biomimetic synthesis
  • Crystal growth
  • Doping
  • Electrochemistry
  • Lithium-ion battery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Organic Chemistry

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