Calibration of the Super-Kamiokande detector

K. Abe, Y. Hayato, T. Iida, K. Iyogi, J. Kameda, Y. Kishimoto, Y. Koshio, Ll Marti, M. Miura, S. Moriyama, M. Nakahata, Y. Nakano, S. Nakayama, Y. Obayashi, H. Sekiya, M. Shiozawa, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeda, Y. Takenaga, H. TanakaT. Tomura, K. Ueno, R. A. Wendell, T. Yokozawa, T. J. Irvine, H. Kaji, T. Kajita, K. Kaneyuki, K. P. Lee, Y. Nishimura, K. Okumura, T. McLachlan, L. Labarga, E. Kearns, J. L. Raaf, J. L. Stone, L. R. Sulak, S. Berkman, H. A. Tanaka, S. Tobayama, M. Goldhaber, K. Bays, G. Carminati, W. R. Kropp, S. Mine, A. Renshaw, M. B. Smy, H. W. Sobel, K. S. Ganezer, J. Hill, W. E. Keig, J. S. Jang, J. Y. Kim, I. T. Lim, N. Hong, T. Akiri, J. B. Albert, A. Himmel, K. Scholberg, C. W. Walter, T. Wongjirad, T. Ishizuka, S. Tasaka, J. G. Learned, S. Matsuno, S. N. Smith, T. Hasegawa, T. Ishida, T. Ishii, T. Kobayashi, T. Nakadaira, K. Nakamura, K. Nishikawa, Y. Oyama, K. Sakashita, T. Sekiguchi, T. Tsukamoto, A. T. Suzuki, Y. Takeuchi, K. Huang, K. Ieki, M. Ikeda, T. Kikawa, H. Kubo, A. Minamino, A. Murakami, T. Nakaya, M. Otani, K. Suzuki, S. Takahashi, Y. Fukuda, K. Choi, Y. Itow, G. Mitsuka, M. Miyake, P. Mijakowski, R. Tacik, J. Hignight, J. Imber, C. K. Jung, I. Taylor, C. Yanagisawa, Y. Idehara, H. Ishino, A. Kibayashi, T. Mori, M. Sakuda, R. Yamaguchi, T. Yano, Y. Kuno, S. B. Kim, B. S. Yang, H. Okazawa, Y. Choi, K. Nishijima, M. Koshiba, Y. Totsuka, M. Yokoyama, K. Martens, M. R. Vagins, J. F. Martin, P. De Perio, A. Konaka, M. J. Wilking, S. Chen, Y. Heng, H. Sui, Z. Yang, H. Zhang, Y. Zhenwei, K. Connolly, M. Dziomba, R. J. Wilkes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Procedures and results on hardware-level detector calibration in Super-Kamiokande (SK) are presented in this paper. In particular, we report improvements made in our calibration methods for the experimental phase IV in which new readout electronics have been operating since 2008. The topics are separated into two parts. The first part describes the determination of constants needed to interpret the digitized output of our electronics so that we can obtain physical numbers such as photon counts and their arrival times for each photomultiplier tube (PMT). In this context, we developed an in situ procedure to determine high-voltage settings for PMTs in large detectors like SK, as well as a new method for measuring PMT quantum efficiency and gain in such a detector. The second part describes modeling of the detector in Monte Carlo simulations, including, in particular, the optical properties of the water target and their variability over time. Detailed studies on water quality are also presented. As a result of this work, we have achieved a precision sufficient for physics analyses over a wide energy range (from a few MeV to above 1 TeV). For example, charge determination was at the level of 1%, and the timing resolution was 2.1 ns at the one-photoelectron charge level and 0.5 ns at the 100-photoelectron charge level.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)253-272
Number of pages20
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Volume737
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Feb 11
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Cosmic rays
  • Detector calibration
  • Neutrino detector
  • Super-Kamioknade
  • Water Cherenkov detector

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Instrumentation

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  • Cite this

    Abe, K., Hayato, Y., Iida, T., Iyogi, K., Kameda, J., Kishimoto, Y., Koshio, Y., Marti, L., Miura, M., Moriyama, S., Nakahata, M., Nakano, Y., Nakayama, S., Obayashi, Y., Sekiya, H., Shiozawa, M., Suzuki, Y., Takeda, A., Takenaga, Y., ... Wilkes, R. J. (2014). Calibration of the Super-Kamiokande detector. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 737, 253-272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2013.11.081