Glutamine synthetase (GS) is a ubiquitous enzyme that catalyzes the ATP- dependent conversion of glutamate to glutamine using ammonia as the nitrogen source. Using human GS cDNA as a probe, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library consisting of twofold coverage of the human genome was screened, and 18 clones were obtained. The restriction analysis of the human insert DNAs provided a basis to divide these 18 BAC clones into five groups, suggesting the existence of a GS gene family in the human genome. PCR analysis using three sets of primers designed from the reported sequences for GS cDNA and a processed pseudogene identified the corresponding BAC clones. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed the chromosomal localization of these five genes: the GS gene to 1q25 (GLUL), the processed pseudogene to 9p13 (GLULP), and three related genes to 5q33 (GLULL1), 11p15 (GLULL2), and 11q24 (GLULL3), respectively.
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