Classification and characteristics of Japanese patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis in a nationwide, prospective, inception cohort study

Ken ei Sada, Masahiro Yamamura, Masayoshi Harigai, Takao Fujii, Hiroaki Dobashi, Yoshinari Takasaki, Satoshi Ito, Hidehiro Yamada, Takashi Wada, Junichi Hirahashi, Yoshihiro Arimura, Hirofumi Makino, Koichi Amano, Kunihiro Yamagata, Shouichi Fujimoto, Sakae Homma, Shunichi Kumagai, Eri Muso, Yohko Murakawa, Shogo BannoHitoshi Hasegawa, Wako Yumura, Hiroaki Matsubara, Masaharu Yoshida, Kensei Katsuoka, Noriyoshi Ogawa

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Abstract

Introduction: We investigated the clinical and serological features of patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) in Japan using data from a nationwide, prospective, inception cohort study.Methods: In total, 156 Japanese patients with newly diagnosed AAV were classified according to the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) algorithm with exploratory surrogate markers for AAV-related non-granulomatous pulmonary lesions, predefined as alveolar haemorrhage and interstitial lung disease (ILD), and their clinical and serological features were evaluated.Results: Using the EMEA algorithm, we identified 14 patients (9.0%) with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), 33 (21.2%) with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), 78 (50.0%) with microscopic polyangiitis and renal-limited vasculitis (MPA/RLV), and 31 (19.9%) with unclassifiable vasculitis. The average ages of patients with EGPA (male/female, 5/9), GPA (12/21), and MPA/RLV (35/43) and unclassifiable (9/22) were 58.0, 63.6, 71.1, and 70.6 years, respectively. Myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA and proteinase-3 ANCA positivity was 50.0% and 0% for EGPA, 54.6% and 45.5% for GPA, 97.4% and 2.6% for MPA/RLV, and 93.5% and 3.2% for unclassifiable, respectively. According to the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS), cutaneous (71.4%) and nervous system (92.9%) manifestations were prominent in EGPA and ear, nose, and throat manifestations (84.9%) and chest manifestations (66.7%) in GPA. Renal manifestations developed frequently in MPA/RLV (91.0%) and GPA (63.6%). The average serum creatinine levels were 0.71 mg/dL for EGPA, 1.51 mg/dL for GPA, 2.46 mg/dL for MPA/RLV, and 0.69 mg/dL for unclassifiable. The percentages of patients with ILD were 14.3% for EGPA, 9.0% for GPA, 47.4% for MPA/RLV, and 61.3% for unclassifiable. Patients with ILD (n = 61) had significantly lower BVAS (P = 0.019) with fewer ear, nose, and throat and cardiovascular manifestations than patients without ILD (n = 95).Conclusions: MPO-ANCA-positive MPA/RLV is the most common form of AAV in Japanese patients, and one-half of patients with GPA were positive for MPO-ANCA. ILD is an important clinical manifestation in Japanese patients with AAV. Unclassifiable vasculitis with MPO-ANCA positivity and ILD may represent a novel variant of MPA.Trial Registration: The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry: UMIN000001648. Registered 28 February 2009.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberR101
JournalArthritis Research and Therapy
Volume16
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Apr 23

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

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    Sada, K. E., Yamamura, M., Harigai, M., Fujii, T., Dobashi, H., Takasaki, Y., Ito, S., Yamada, H., Wada, T., Hirahashi, J., Arimura, Y., Makino, H., Amano, K., Yamagata, K., Fujimoto, S., Homma, S., Kumagai, S., Muso, E., Murakawa, Y., ... Ogawa, N. (2014). Classification and characteristics of Japanese patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis in a nationwide, prospective, inception cohort study. Arthritis Research and Therapy, 16(2), [R101]. https://doi.org/10.1186/ar4550