Controversies and debates remain regarding the best management of severe acute-onset autoimmune hepatitis (SA-AIH) due to the lack of useful outcome or complication prediction systems. We conducted this clinical practice-based observational study to clarify whether Chronic Liver Failure Consortium Organ Failure scores (CLIF-C OFs) and the computed tomography–derived liver volume to standard liver volume (CTLV/SLV) ratio at admission to a tertiary transplant center can predict outcomes and complications due to infection. Thirty-four consecutive corticosteroid-treated patients with SA-AIH from 2007 to 2018 were included. Severe hepatitis was defined as an international normalized ratio (of prothrombin time) over 1.3 any time before admission. Of the 34 corticosteroid-treated patients with SA-AIH inclusive of 25 (73.5%) acute liver failure cases, transplant-free survival was observed in 24 patients (70.6%). Any infection was noticed in 10 patients (29.4%). CLIF-C OFs, at the cutoff of 9, significantly predicted survival (P = 0.0002, log-rank test), outperformed the Model for End-stage Liver Disease system in predicting outcome (P = 0.0325), and significantly discriminated between liver transplant and death in a competing risk analysis. SA-AIH was characterized as having decreased CTLV/SLV, which was also predictive of survival (P < 0.0001). Interestingly, CLIF-C OFs, especially the subscores for respiratory dysfunction, also predicted infection (P = 0.007). Conclusion: In corticosteroid-treated patients with SA-AIH, CLIF-C OFs and CTLV/SLV ratios predicted both survival outcome and complications due to infection. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether making decisions based on CLIF-C OFs or CTLV/SLV ratios is useful.
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