Coherent Rabi dynamics of a superradiant spin ensemble in a microwave cavity

B. C. Rose, A. M. Tyryshkin, H. Riemann, N. V. Abrosimov, P. Becker, H. J. Pohl, M. L.W. Thewalt, Kohei M Itoh, S. A. Lyon

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Abstract

We achieve the strong-coupling regime between an ensemble of phosphorus donor spins in a highly enriched 28Si crystal and a 3D dielectric resonator. Spins are polarized beyond Boltzmann equilibrium using spin-selective optical excitation of the no-phonon bound exciton transition resulting in N = 3.6 × 1013 unpaired spins in the ensemble. We observe a normal mode splitting of the spin-ensemble-cavity polariton resonances of 2g √ N = 580 kHz (where each spin is coupled with strength g) in a cavity with a quality factor of 75 000 (γ ≪ κ ≈ 60 kHz, where γ and κ are the spin dephasing and cavity loss rates, respectively). The spin ensemble has a long dephasing time (T* 2 = 9 μs) providing a wide window for viewing the dynamics of the coupled spin-ensemble-cavity system. The free-induction decay shows up to a dozen collapses and revivals revealing a coherent exchange of excitations between the superradiant state of the spin ensemble and the cavity at the rate g √ N. The ensemble is found to evolve as a single large pseudospin according to the Tavis-Cummings model due to minimal inhomogeneous broadening and uniform spin-cavity coupling. We demonstrate independent control of the total spin and the initial Z projection of the psuedospin using optical excitation and microwave manipulation, respectively. We vary the microwave excitation power to rotate the pseudospin on the Bloch sphere and observe a long delay in the onset of the superradiant emission as the pseudospin approaches full inversion. This delay is accompanied by an abrupt p-phase shift in the peusdospin microwave emission. The scaling of this delay with the initial angle and the sudden phase shift are explained by the Tavis-Cummings model.

Original languageEnglish
Article number031002
JournalPhysical Review X
Volume7
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Jul 10

Fingerprint

microwaves
cavities
excitation
phase shift
microwave emission
polaritons
phosphorus
Q factors
manipulators
induction
projection
resonators
excitons
inversions
scaling
decay
crystals

Keywords

  • Mesoscopics
  • Quantum physics
  • Strongly correlated materials

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

Rose, B. C., Tyryshkin, A. M., Riemann, H., Abrosimov, N. V., Becker, P., Pohl, H. J., ... Lyon, S. A. (2017). Coherent Rabi dynamics of a superradiant spin ensemble in a microwave cavity. Physical Review X, 7(3), [031002]. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevX.7.031002

Coherent Rabi dynamics of a superradiant spin ensemble in a microwave cavity. / Rose, B. C.; Tyryshkin, A. M.; Riemann, H.; Abrosimov, N. V.; Becker, P.; Pohl, H. J.; Thewalt, M. L.W.; Itoh, Kohei M; Lyon, S. A.

In: Physical Review X, Vol. 7, No. 3, 031002, 10.07.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Rose, BC, Tyryshkin, AM, Riemann, H, Abrosimov, NV, Becker, P, Pohl, HJ, Thewalt, MLW, Itoh, KM & Lyon, SA 2017, 'Coherent Rabi dynamics of a superradiant spin ensemble in a microwave cavity', Physical Review X, vol. 7, no. 3, 031002. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevX.7.031002
Rose BC, Tyryshkin AM, Riemann H, Abrosimov NV, Becker P, Pohl HJ et al. Coherent Rabi dynamics of a superradiant spin ensemble in a microwave cavity. Physical Review X. 2017 Jul 10;7(3). 031002. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevX.7.031002
Rose, B. C. ; Tyryshkin, A. M. ; Riemann, H. ; Abrosimov, N. V. ; Becker, P. ; Pohl, H. J. ; Thewalt, M. L.W. ; Itoh, Kohei M ; Lyon, S. A. / Coherent Rabi dynamics of a superradiant spin ensemble in a microwave cavity. In: Physical Review X. 2017 ; Vol. 7, No. 3.
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AU - Tyryshkin, A. M.

AU - Riemann, H.

AU - Abrosimov, N. V.

AU - Becker, P.

AU - Pohl, H. J.

AU - Thewalt, M. L.W.

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AB - We achieve the strong-coupling regime between an ensemble of phosphorus donor spins in a highly enriched 28Si crystal and a 3D dielectric resonator. Spins are polarized beyond Boltzmann equilibrium using spin-selective optical excitation of the no-phonon bound exciton transition resulting in N = 3.6 × 1013 unpaired spins in the ensemble. We observe a normal mode splitting of the spin-ensemble-cavity polariton resonances of 2g √ N = 580 kHz (where each spin is coupled with strength g) in a cavity with a quality factor of 75 000 (γ ≪ κ ≈ 60 kHz, where γ and κ are the spin dephasing and cavity loss rates, respectively). The spin ensemble has a long dephasing time (T* 2 = 9 μs) providing a wide window for viewing the dynamics of the coupled spin-ensemble-cavity system. The free-induction decay shows up to a dozen collapses and revivals revealing a coherent exchange of excitations between the superradiant state of the spin ensemble and the cavity at the rate g √ N. The ensemble is found to evolve as a single large pseudospin according to the Tavis-Cummings model due to minimal inhomogeneous broadening and uniform spin-cavity coupling. We demonstrate independent control of the total spin and the initial Z projection of the psuedospin using optical excitation and microwave manipulation, respectively. We vary the microwave excitation power to rotate the pseudospin on the Bloch sphere and observe a long delay in the onset of the superradiant emission as the pseudospin approaches full inversion. This delay is accompanied by an abrupt p-phase shift in the peusdospin microwave emission. The scaling of this delay with the initial angle and the sudden phase shift are explained by the Tavis-Cummings model.

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