Commuting inequality between cars and public transit: The case of the San Francisco Bay Area, 1990-2000

Mizuki Kawabata, Qing Shen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

94 Citations (Scopus)


Equity in access to opportunities is increasingly recognised as an essential component of sustainable development and transport. This study presents a spatial and temporal examination of commuting inequality between cars and public transit in the San Francisco Bay Area. Results visualised in the maps show considerable inequality and temporal changes in job accessibility and commuting time between cars and public transit as well as among locations within the metropolitan area. Results from OLS and spatial regression models indicate that, in both 1990 and 2000, greater job accessibility was significantly associated with shorter commuting time for driving alone as well as for public transit, but the degree of this association was considerably greater for public transit than for driving alone. Urban and transport development that enhances mobility and accessibility for public transit relative to cars should be strongly encouraged.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1759-1780
Number of pages22
JournalUrban Studies
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Aug
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Urban Studies

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