We aimed to investigate whether gold marker implantation in the tissue surrounding the prostate could accurately monitor setup errors during external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) following low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy. Thirty-eight patients had confirmed intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer and received EBRT following LDR brachytherapy. In >175 computed tomography imaging sessions, the average values of the weekly setup error during EBRT to the prostate centroid at the time of gold marker matching in the surrounding tissue of the prostate and pelvic bone matching were measured and then compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Gold marker matching in the surrounding tissue of the prostate estimated setup errors better than those estimated by bone matching (3D displacement = 2.7 ± 2.0 vs 3.8 ± 2.6 mm, P < 0.01). Overall, the standard deviation of systematic (Σ) and random (σ) setup error was lower with gold marker matching than with bone matching (3D displacement = 1.8 and 1.1 mm vs 2.1 and 1.6 mm, respectively). With gold marker matching, the setup error of the position of the prostate centroid was smaller, and the optimal setup margin was lower than that with bone matching (2Σ + 0.7σ and 2.5Σ + 0.7σ of 3D displacement = 4.3 and 5.2 mm vs 5.3 and 6.4 mm, respectively). This high-precision radiotherapy approach placing gold markers in the surrounding tissue of the prostate can allow more accurate setup during EBRT following LDR brachytherapy.
- external beam radiation therapy
- fiducial marker
- prostate cancer
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis