A free-space quantum key distribution system is being developed by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) in Koganei, Japan. Quantum cryptography is a new technique for transmitting information where the security is guaranteed by the laws of physics. In such systems, a single photon is used for the quantum information. However, since the transmission distance in optical fibers is limited by the absorption of photons by the fiber, the maximum demonstrated range has been limited to about 100 km. Free-space quantum cryptography between an optical ground station and a satellite is a possible solution to extend the distance for a quantum network beyond the limits of optical fibers. At NICT, a laser communication demonstration between the NICT optical ground station and a low earth orbit satellite was successfully conducted in 2006. The use of free-space quantum key distribution for such space communication links is considered an important future application. This paper presents conceptual designs for the onboard transceivers for satellite quantum cryptography.