Objective: Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is associated with increased risk of progression when found with high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, yet its impact is less clear in the upper urinary tract. In the current study, we evaluated the impact of concomitant CIS on recurrence-free survival and cancer-specific survival following radical nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Materials and methods: A multi-institutional retrospective cohort of 1,387 patients undergoing radical nephroureterectomy was identified. Concomitant CIS was defined as the presence of CIS in association with another pathologic stage; patients with CIS alone were excluded from the analysis. The presence of concomitant CIS served as the exposure variable with disease recurrence and cancer-specific mortality as the outcomes. Organ-confined disease was defined as AJCC/UICC stage II or lower. Results: Concomitant CIS was identified in 371 of 1,387 (26.7%) patients and was significantly more common in patients with a previous bladder cancer history, high grade, and high stage tumors. In a multivariable analysis, concomitant CIS was a predictor of disease recurrence (HR = 1.25, . P = 0.04) and cancer specific mortality (HR = 1.34, . P = 0.05) for patients with organ-confined UTUC, but not in the entire cohort. Other prognostic variables, such as grade, stage, lymphovascular invasion, and lymph node status, were associated with poorer overall and recurrence-free survival for all patients. Conclusion: The presence of concomitant CIS in patients with organ-confined UTUC is associated with a higher risk of recurrent disease and cancer-specific mortality. This information may be useful in refining surveillance protocols and in more appropriate selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations|
|Publication status||Published - 2012 May|
- Carcinoma in situ
- Transitional cell carcinoma
- Upper tract
ASJC Scopus subject areas