Considerations and consequences of allowing DNA sequence data as types of fungal taxa

Juan Carlos Zamora, Måns Svensson, Roland Kirschner, Ibai Olariaga, Svengunnar Ryman, Luis Alberto Parra, József Geml, Anna Rosling, Slavomír Adamčík, Teuvo Ahti, M. Catherine Aime, A. Martyn Ainsworth, László Albert, Edgardo Albertó, Alberto Altés García, Dmitry Ageev, Reinhard Agerer, Begoña Aguirre-Hudson, Joe Ammirati, Harry AnderssonClaudio Angelini, Vladimír Antonín, Takayuki Aoki, André Aptroot, Didier Argaud, Blanca Imelda Arguello Sosa, Arne Aronsen, Ulf Arup, Bita Asgari, Boris Assyov, Violeta Atienza, Ditte Bandini, João Luís Baptista-Ferreira, Hans Otto Baral, Tim Baroni, Robert Weingart Barreto, Henry Beker, Ann Bell, Jean Michel Bellanger, Francesco Bellù, Martin Bemmann, Mika Bendiksby, Egil Bendiksen, Katriina Bendiksen, Lajos Benedek, Anna Bérešová-Guttová, Franz Berger, Reinhard Berndt, Annarosa Bernicchia, Alona Yu Biketova, Enrico Bizio, Curtis Bjork, Teun Boekhout, David Boertmann, Tanja Böhning, Florent Boittin, Carlos G. Boluda, Menno W. Boomsluiter, Jan Borovička, Tor Erik Brandrud, Uwe Braun, Irwin Brodo, Tatiana Bulyonkova, Harold H. Burdsall, Bart Buyck, Ana Rosa Burgaz, Vicent Calatayud, Philippe Callac, Emanuele Campo, Massimo Candusso, Brigitte Capoen, Joaquim Carbó, Matteo Carbone, Rafael F. Castañeda-Ruiz, Michael A. Castellano, Jie Chen, Philippe Clerc, Giovanni Consiglio, Gilles Corriol, Régis Courtecuisse, Ana Crespo, Cathy Cripps, Pedro W. Crous, Gladstone Alves da Silva, Meiriele da Silva, Marjo Dam, Nico Dam, Frank Dämmrich, Kanad Das, Linda Davies, Eske De Crop, Andre De Kesel, Ruben De Lange, Bárbara De Madrignac Bonzi, Thomas Edison E. dela Cruz, Lynn Delgat, Vincent Demoulin, Dennis E. Desjardin, Paul Diederich, Bálint Dima, Maria Martha Dios, Pradeep Kumar Divakar, Clovis Douanla-Meli, Brian Douglas, Elisandro Ricardo Drechsler-Santos, Paul S. Dyer, Ursula Eberhardt, Damien Ertz, Fernando Esteve-Raventós, Javier Angel Etayo Salazar, Vera Evenson, Guillaume Eyssartier, Edit Farkas, Alain Favre, Anna G. Fedosova, Mario Filippa, Péter Finy, Adam Flakus, Simón Fos, Jacques Fournier, André Fraiture, Paolo Franchi, Ana Esperanza Franco Molano, Gernot Friebes, Andreas Frisch, Alan Fryday, Giuliana Furci, Ricardo Galán Márquez, Matteo Garbelotto, Joaquina María García-Martín, Mónica A.García Otálora, Dania García Sánchez, Alain Gardiennet, Sigisfredo Garnica, Isaac Garrido Benavent, Genevieve Gates, Alice da Cruz Lima Gerlach, Masoomeh Ghobad-Nejhad, Tatiana B. Gibertoni, Tine Grebenc, Irmgard Greilhuber, Bella Grishkan, Johannes Z. Groenewald, Martin Grube, Gérald Gruhn, Cécile Gueidan, Gro Gulden, Luis F.P. Gusmão, Josef Hafellner, Michel Hairaud, Marek Halama, Nils Hallenberg, Roy E. Halling, Karen Hansen, Christoffer Bugge Harder, Jacob Heilmann-Clausen, Stip Helleman, Alain Henriot, Margarita Hernandez-Restrepo, Raphaël Herve, Caroline Hobart, Mascha Hoffmeister, Klaus Høiland, Jan Holec, Håkon Holien, Karen Hughes, Vit Hubka, Seppo Huhtinen, Boris Ivancevic, Marian Jagers, Walter Jaklitsch, Anna Elise Jansen, Ruvishika S. Jayawardena, Thomas Stjernegaard Jeppesen, Mikael Jeppson, Peter Johnston, Per Magnus Jørgensen, Ingvar Kärnefelt, Liudmila B. Kalinina, Gintaras Kantvilas, Mitko Karadelev, Taiga Kasuya, Ivona Kautmanová, Richard W. Kerrigan, Martin Kirchmair, Anna Kiyashko, Dániel G. Knapp, Henning Knudsen, Kerry Knudsen, Tommy Knutsson, Miroslav Kolarík, Urmas Kõljalg, Alica Košuthová, Attila Koszka, Heikki Kotiranta, Vera Kotkova, Ondrej Koukol, Jirí Kout, Gábor M. Kovács, Martin Kríž, Asa Kruys, Viktor Kucera, Linas Kudzma, Francisco Kuhar, Martin Kukwa, T. K. Arun Kumar, Vladimír Kunca, Ivana Kušan, Thomas W. Kuyper, Carlos Lado, Thomas Læssøe, Patrice Lainé, Ewald Langer, Ellen Larsson, Karl Henrik Larsson, Gary Laursen, Christian Lechat, Serena Lee, James C. Lendemer, Laura Levin, Uwe Lindemann, Håkan Lindström, Xingzhong Liu, Regulo Carlos Llarena Hernandez, Esteve Llop, Csaba Locsmándi, Deborah Jean Lodge, Michael Loizides, László Lokös, Jennifer Luangsa-Ard, Matthias Lüderitz, Thorsten Lumbsch, Matthias Lutz, Dan Mahoney, Ekaterina Malysheva, Vera Malysheva, Patinjareveettil Manimohan, Yasmina Marin-Felix, Guilhermina Marques, Rubén Martínez-Gil, Guy Marson, Gerardo Mata, P. Brandon Matheny, Geir Harald Mathiassen, Neven Matocec, Helmut Mayrhofer, Mehdi Mehrabi, Ireneia Melo, Armin Mešic, Andrew S. Methven, Otto Miettinen, Ana M.Millanes Romero, Andrew N. Miller, James K. Mitchell, Roland Moberg, Pierre Arthur Moreau, Gabriel Moreno, Olga Morozova, Asunción Morte, Lucia Muggia, Guillermo Muñoz González, Leena Myllys, István Nagy, László G. Nagy, Maria Alice Neves, Tuomo Niemelä, Pier Luigi Nimis, Nicolas Niveiro, Machiel E. Noordeloos, Anders Nordin, Sara Raouia Noumeur, Yuri Novozhilov, Jorinde Nuytinck, Esteri Ohenoja, Patricia Oliveira Fiuza, Alan Orange, Alexander Ordynets, Beatriz Ortiz-Santana, Leticia Pacheco, Ferenc Pál-Fám, Melissa Palacio, Zdenek Palice, Viktor Papp, Kadri Pärtel, Julia Pawlowska, Aurelia Paz, Ursula Peintner, Shaun Pennycook, Olinto Liparini Pereira, Pablo Pérez Daniëls, Miquel À.Pérez De Gregorio Capella, Carlos Manuel Pérez del Amo, Sergio Pérez Gorjón, Sergio Pérez-Ortega, Israel Pérez-Vargas, Brian A. Perry, Jens H. Petersen, Ronald H. Petersen, Donald H. Pfister, Chayanard Phukhamsakda, Marcin Piatek, Meike Piepenbring, Raquel Pino-Bodas, Juan Pablo Pinzón Esquivel, Paul Pirot, Eugene S. Popov, Orlando Popoff, María Prieto Álvaro, Christian Printzen, Nadezhda Psurtseva, Witoon Purahong, Luis Quijada, Gerhard Rambold, Natalia A. Ramírez, Huzefa Raja, Olivier Raspé, Tania Raymundo, Martina Réblová, Yury A. Rebriev, Juan de Dios Reyes García, Miguel ángel Ribes Ripoll, Franck Richard, Mike J. Richardson, Víctor J. Rico, Gerardo Lucio Robledo, Flavia Rodrigues Barbosa, Cristina Rodriguez-Caycedo, Pamela Rodriguez-Flakus, Anna Ronikier, Luis Rubio Casas, Katerina Rusevska, Günter Saar, Irja Saar, Isabel Salcedo, Sergio M.Salcedo Martínez, Carlos A.Salvador Montoya, Santiago Sánchez-Ramírez, J. Vladimir Sandoval-Sierra, Sergi Santamaria, Josiane Santana Monteiro, Hans Josef Schroers, Barbara Schulz, Geert Schmidt-Stohn, Trond Schumacher, Beatrice Senn-Irlet, Hana Ševcíková, Oleg Shchepin, Takashi Shirouzu, Anton Shiryaev, Klaus Siepe, Esteban B. Sir, Mohammad Sohrabi, Karl Soop, Viacheslav Spirin, Toby Spribille, Marc Stadler, Joost Stalpers, Soili Stenroos, Ave Suija, Stellan Sunhede, Sten Svantesson, Sigvard Svensson, Tatyana Yu Svetasheva, Krzysztof Swierkosz, Heidi Tamm, Hatira Taskin, Adrien Taudière, Jan Olof Tedebrand, Raúl Tena Lahoz, Marina Temina, Arne Thell, Marco Thines, Göran Thor, Holger Thüs, Leif Tibell, Sanja Tibell, Einar Timdal, Zdenko Tkalcec, Tor Tønsberg, Gérard Trichies, Dagmar Triebel, Andrei Tsurykau, Rodham E. Tulloss, Veera Tuovinen, Miguel Ulloa Sosa, Carlos Urcelay, François Valade, Ricardo Valenzuela Garza, Pieter van den Boom, Nicolas Van Vooren, Aida M. Vasco-Palacios, Jukka Vauras, Juan Manuel Velasco Santos, Else Vellinga, Annemieke Verbeken, Per Vetlesen, Alfredo Vizzini, Hermann Voglmayr, Sergey Volobuev, Wolfgang von Brackel, Elena Voronina, Grit Walther, Roy Watling, Evi Weber, Mats Wedin, Øyvind Weholt, Martin Westberg, Eugene Yurchenko, Petr Zehnálek, Huang Zhang, Mikhail P. Zhurbenko, Stefan Ekman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Nomenclatural type definitions are one of the most important concepts in biological nomenclature. Being physical objects that can be re-studied by other researchers, types permanently link taxonomy (an artificial agreement to classify biological diversity) with nomenclature (an artificial agreement to name biological diversity). Two proposals to amend the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), allowing DNA sequences alone (of any region and extent) to serve as types of taxon names for voucherless fungi (mainly putative taxa from environmental DNA sequences), have been submitted to be voted on at the 11th International Mycological Congress (Puerto Rico, July 2018). We consider various genetic processes affecting the distribution of alleles among taxa and find that alleles may not consistently and uniquely represent the species within which they are contained. Should the proposals be accepted, the meaning of nomenclatural types would change in a fundamental way from physical objects as sources of data to the data themselves. Such changes are conducive to irreproducible science, the potential typification on artefactual data, and massive creation of names with low information content, ultimately causing nomenclatural instability and unnecessary work for future researchers that would stall future explorations of fungal diversity. We conclude that the acceptance of DNA sequences alone as types of names of taxa, under the terms used in the current proposals, is unnecessary and would not solve the problem of naming putative taxa known only from DNA sequences in a scientifically defensible way. As an alternative, we highlight the use of formulas for naming putative taxa (candidate taxa) that do not require any modification of the ICN.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)167-175
Number of pages9
JournalIMA Fungus
Volume9
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jan 1
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Names
nomenclature
Terminology
nucleotide sequences
DNA
Biodiversity
algae
biological nomenclature
allele
Fungi
researchers
Alleles
Research Personnel
Genetic Phenomena
biodiversity
alleles
plant and fungus
Puerto Rico
fungi
Information Storage and Retrieval

Keywords

  • IMC11 nomenclature
  • Speciation
  • Taxonomy
  • Typification
  • Voucherless fungi

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)

Cite this

Zamora, J. C., Svensson, M., Kirschner, R., Olariaga, I., Ryman, S., Parra, L. A., ... Ekman, S. (2018). Considerations and consequences of allowing DNA sequence data as types of fungal taxa. IMA Fungus, 9(1), 167-175. https://doi.org/10.5598/imafungus.2018.09.01.10

Considerations and consequences of allowing DNA sequence data as types of fungal taxa. / Zamora, Juan Carlos; Svensson, Måns; Kirschner, Roland; Olariaga, Ibai; Ryman, Svengunnar; Parra, Luis Alberto; Geml, József; Rosling, Anna; Adamčík, Slavomír; Ahti, Teuvo; Aime, M. Catherine; Ainsworth, A. Martyn; Albert, László; Albertó, Edgardo; García, Alberto Altés; Ageev, Dmitry; Agerer, Reinhard; Aguirre-Hudson, Begoña; Ammirati, Joe; Andersson, Harry; Angelini, Claudio; Antonín, Vladimír; Aoki, Takayuki; Aptroot, André; Argaud, Didier; Sosa, Blanca Imelda Arguello; Aronsen, Arne; Arup, Ulf; Asgari, Bita; Assyov, Boris; Atienza, Violeta; Bandini, Ditte; Baptista-Ferreira, João Luís; Baral, Hans Otto; Baroni, Tim; Barreto, Robert Weingart; Beker, Henry; Bell, Ann; Bellanger, Jean Michel; Bellù, Francesco; Bemmann, Martin; Bendiksby, Mika; Bendiksen, Egil; Bendiksen, Katriina; Benedek, Lajos; Bérešová-Guttová, Anna; Berger, Franz; Berndt, Reinhard; Bernicchia, Annarosa; Biketova, Alona Yu; Bizio, Enrico; Bjork, Curtis; Boekhout, Teun; Boertmann, David; Böhning, Tanja; Boittin, Florent; Boluda, Carlos G.; Boomsluiter, Menno W.; Borovička, Jan; Brandrud, Tor Erik; Braun, Uwe; Brodo, Irwin; Bulyonkova, Tatiana; Burdsall, Harold H.; Buyck, Bart; Burgaz, Ana Rosa; Calatayud, Vicent; Callac, Philippe; Campo, Emanuele; Candusso, Massimo; Capoen, Brigitte; Carbó, Joaquim; Carbone, Matteo; Castañeda-Ruiz, Rafael F.; Castellano, Michael A.; Chen, Jie; Clerc, Philippe; Consiglio, Giovanni; Corriol, Gilles; Courtecuisse, Régis; Crespo, Ana; Cripps, Cathy; Crous, Pedro W.; da Silva, Gladstone Alves; da Silva, Meiriele; Dam, Marjo; Dam, Nico; Dämmrich, Frank; Das, Kanad; Davies, Linda; De Crop, Eske; De Kesel, Andre; De Lange, Ruben; Bonzi, Bárbara De Madrignac; dela Cruz, Thomas Edison E.; Delgat, Lynn; Demoulin, Vincent; Desjardin, Dennis E.; Diederich, Paul; Dima, Bálint; Dios, Maria Martha; Divakar, Pradeep Kumar; Douanla-Meli, Clovis; Douglas, Brian; Drechsler-Santos, Elisandro Ricardo; Dyer, Paul S.; Eberhardt, Ursula; Ertz, Damien; Esteve-Raventós, Fernando; Etayo Salazar, Javier Angel; Evenson, Vera; Eyssartier, Guillaume; Farkas, Edit; Favre, Alain; Fedosova, Anna G.; Filippa, Mario; Finy, Péter; Flakus, Adam; Fos, Simón; Fournier, Jacques; Fraiture, André; Franchi, Paolo; Molano, Ana Esperanza Franco; Friebes, Gernot; Frisch, Andreas; Fryday, Alan; Furci, Giuliana; Márquez, Ricardo Galán; Garbelotto, Matteo; García-Martín, Joaquina María; Otálora, Mónica A.García; Sánchez, Dania García; Gardiennet, Alain; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Benavent, Isaac Garrido; Gates, Genevieve; Gerlach, Alice da Cruz Lima; Ghobad-Nejhad, Masoomeh; Gibertoni, Tatiana B.; Grebenc, Tine; Greilhuber, Irmgard; Grishkan, Bella; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Grube, Martin; Gruhn, Gérald; Gueidan, Cécile; Gulden, Gro; Gusmão, Luis F.P.; Hafellner, Josef; Hairaud, Michel; Halama, Marek; Hallenberg, Nils; Halling, Roy E.; Hansen, Karen; Harder, Christoffer Bugge; Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob; Helleman, Stip; Henriot, Alain; Hernandez-Restrepo, Margarita; Herve, Raphaël; Hobart, Caroline; Hoffmeister, Mascha; Høiland, Klaus; Holec, Jan; Holien, Håkon; Hughes, Karen; Hubka, Vit; Huhtinen, Seppo; Ivancevic, Boris; Jagers, Marian; Jaklitsch, Walter; Jansen, Anna Elise; Jayawardena, Ruvishika S.; Jeppesen, Thomas Stjernegaard; Jeppson, Mikael; Johnston, Peter; Jørgensen, Per Magnus; Kärnefelt, Ingvar; Kalinina, Liudmila B.; Kantvilas, Gintaras; Karadelev, Mitko; Kasuya, Taiga; Kautmanová, Ivona; Kerrigan, Richard W.; Kirchmair, Martin; Kiyashko, Anna; Knapp, Dániel G.; Knudsen, Henning; Knudsen, Kerry; Knutsson, Tommy; Kolarík, Miroslav; Kõljalg, Urmas; Košuthová, Alica; Koszka, Attila; Kotiranta, Heikki; Kotkova, Vera; Koukol, Ondrej; Kout, Jirí; Kovács, Gábor M.; Kríž, Martin; Kruys, Asa; Kucera, Viktor; Kudzma, Linas; Kuhar, Francisco; Kukwa, Martin; Arun Kumar, T. K.; Kunca, Vladimír; Kušan, Ivana; Kuyper, Thomas W.; Lado, Carlos; Læssøe, Thomas; Lainé, Patrice; Langer, Ewald; Larsson, Ellen; Larsson, Karl Henrik; Laursen, Gary; Lechat, Christian; Lee, Serena; Lendemer, James C.; Levin, Laura; Lindemann, Uwe; Lindström, Håkan; Liu, Xingzhong; Hernandez, Regulo Carlos Llarena; Llop, Esteve; Locsmándi, Csaba; Lodge, Deborah Jean; Loizides, Michael; Lokös, László; Luangsa-Ard, Jennifer; Lüderitz, Matthias; Lumbsch, Thorsten; Lutz, Matthias; Mahoney, Dan; Malysheva, Ekaterina; Malysheva, Vera; Manimohan, Patinjareveettil; Marin-Felix, Yasmina; Marques, Guilhermina; Martínez-Gil, Rubén; Marson, Guy; Mata, Gerardo; Matheny, P. Brandon; Mathiassen, Geir Harald; Matocec, Neven; Mayrhofer, Helmut; Mehrabi, Mehdi; Melo, Ireneia; Mešic, Armin; Methven, Andrew S.; Miettinen, Otto; Romero, Ana M.Millanes; Miller, Andrew N.; Mitchell, James K.; Moberg, Roland; Moreau, Pierre Arthur; Moreno, Gabriel; Morozova, Olga; Morte, Asunción; Muggia, Lucia; González, Guillermo Muñoz; Myllys, Leena; Nagy, István; Nagy, László G.; Neves, Maria Alice; Niemelä, Tuomo; Nimis, Pier Luigi; Niveiro, Nicolas; Noordeloos, Machiel E.; Nordin, Anders; Noumeur, Sara Raouia; Novozhilov, Yuri; Nuytinck, Jorinde; Ohenoja, Esteri; Fiuza, Patricia Oliveira; Orange, Alan; Ordynets, Alexander; Ortiz-Santana, Beatriz; Pacheco, Leticia; Pál-Fám, Ferenc; Palacio, Melissa; Palice, Zdenek; Papp, Viktor; Pärtel, Kadri; Pawlowska, Julia; Paz, Aurelia; Peintner, Ursula; Pennycook, Shaun; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; Daniëls, Pablo Pérez; Capella, Miquel À.Pérez De Gregorio; del Amo, Carlos Manuel Pérez; Gorjón, Sergio Pérez; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; Pérez-Vargas, Israel; Perry, Brian A.; Petersen, Jens H.; Petersen, Ronald H.; Pfister, Donald H.; Phukhamsakda, Chayanard; Piatek, Marcin; Piepenbring, Meike; Pino-Bodas, Raquel; Esquivel, Juan Pablo Pinzón; Pirot, Paul; Popov, Eugene S.; Popoff, Orlando; Álvaro, María Prieto; Printzen, Christian; Psurtseva, Nadezhda; Purahong, Witoon; Quijada, Luis; Rambold, Gerhard; Ramírez, Natalia A.; Raja, Huzefa; Raspé, Olivier; Raymundo, Tania; Réblová, Martina; Rebriev, Yury A.; Reyes García, Juan de Dios; Ripoll, Miguel ángel Ribes; Richard, Franck; Richardson, Mike J.; Rico, Víctor J.; Robledo, Gerardo Lucio; Barbosa, Flavia Rodrigues; Rodriguez-Caycedo, Cristina; Rodriguez-Flakus, Pamela; Ronikier, Anna; Casas, Luis Rubio; Rusevska, Katerina; Saar, Günter; Saar, Irja; Salcedo, Isabel; Martínez, Sergio M.Salcedo; Montoya, Carlos A.Salvador; Sánchez-Ramírez, Santiago; Sandoval-Sierra, J. Vladimir; Santamaria, Sergi; Monteiro, Josiane Santana; Schroers, Hans Josef; Schulz, Barbara; Schmidt-Stohn, Geert; Schumacher, Trond; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice; Ševcíková, Hana; Shchepin, Oleg; Shirouzu, Takashi; Shiryaev, Anton; Siepe, Klaus; Sir, Esteban B.; Sohrabi, Mohammad; Soop, Karl; Spirin, Viacheslav; Spribille, Toby; Stadler, Marc; Stalpers, Joost; Stenroos, Soili; Suija, Ave; Sunhede, Stellan; Svantesson, Sten; Svensson, Sigvard; Svetasheva, Tatyana Yu; Swierkosz, Krzysztof; Tamm, Heidi; Taskin, Hatira; Taudière, Adrien; Tedebrand, Jan Olof; Lahoz, Raúl Tena; Temina, Marina; Thell, Arne; Thines, Marco; Thor, Göran; Thüs, Holger; Tibell, Leif; Tibell, Sanja; Timdal, Einar; Tkalcec, Zdenko; Tønsberg, Tor; Trichies, Gérard; Triebel, Dagmar; Tsurykau, Andrei; Tulloss, Rodham E.; Tuovinen, Veera; Sosa, Miguel Ulloa; Urcelay, Carlos; Valade, François; Valenzuela Garza, Ricardo; Boom, Pieter van den; Vooren, Nicolas Van; Vasco-Palacios, Aida M.; Vauras, Jukka; Santos, Juan Manuel Velasco; Vellinga, Else; Verbeken, Annemieke; Vetlesen, Per; Vizzini, Alfredo; Voglmayr, Hermann; Volobuev, Sergey; von Brackel, Wolfgang; Voronina, Elena; Walther, Grit; Watling, Roy; Weber, Evi; Wedin, Mats; Weholt, Øyvind; Westberg, Martin; Yurchenko, Eugene; Zehnálek, Petr; Zhang, Huang; Zhurbenko, Mikhail P.; Ekman, Stefan.

In: IMA Fungus, Vol. 9, No. 1, 01.01.2018, p. 167-175.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zamora, JC, Svensson, M, Kirschner, R, Olariaga, I, Ryman, S, Parra, LA, Geml, J, Rosling, A, Adamčík, S, Ahti, T, Aime, MC, Ainsworth, AM, Albert, L, Albertó, E, García, AA, Ageev, D, Agerer, R, Aguirre-Hudson, B, Ammirati, J, Andersson, H, Angelini, C, Antonín, V, Aoki, T, Aptroot, A, Argaud, D, Sosa, BIA, Aronsen, A, Arup, U, Asgari, B, Assyov, B, Atienza, V, Bandini, D, Baptista-Ferreira, JL, Baral, HO, Baroni, T, Barreto, RW, Beker, H, Bell, A, Bellanger, JM, Bellù, F, Bemmann, M, Bendiksby, M, Bendiksen, E, Bendiksen, K, Benedek, L, Bérešová-Guttová, A, Berger, F, Berndt, R, Bernicchia, A, Biketova, AY, Bizio, E, Bjork, C, Boekhout, T, Boertmann, D, Böhning, T, Boittin, F, Boluda, CG, Boomsluiter, MW, Borovička, J, Brandrud, TE, Braun, U, Brodo, I, Bulyonkova, T, Burdsall, HH, Buyck, B, Burgaz, AR, Calatayud, V, Callac, P, Campo, E, Candusso, M, Capoen, B, Carbó, J, Carbone, M, Castañeda-Ruiz, RF, Castellano, MA, Chen, J, Clerc, P, Consiglio, G, Corriol, G, Courtecuisse, R, Crespo, A, Cripps, C, Crous, PW, da Silva, GA, da Silva, M, Dam, M, Dam, N, Dämmrich, F, Das, K, Davies, L, De Crop, E, De Kesel, A, De Lange, R, Bonzi, BDM, dela Cruz, TEE, Delgat, L, Demoulin, V, Desjardin, DE, Diederich, P, Dima, B, Dios, MM, Divakar, PK, Douanla-Meli, C, Douglas, B, Drechsler-Santos, ER, Dyer, PS, Eberhardt, U, Ertz, D, Esteve-Raventós, F, Etayo Salazar, JA, Evenson, V, Eyssartier, G, Farkas, E, Favre, A, Fedosova, AG, Filippa, M, Finy, P, Flakus, A, Fos, S, Fournier, J, Fraiture, A, Franchi, P, Molano, AEF, Friebes, G, Frisch, A, Fryday, A, Furci, G, Márquez, RG, Garbelotto, M, García-Martín, JM, Otálora, MAG, Sánchez, DG, Gardiennet, A, Garnica, S, Benavent, IG, Gates, G, Gerlach, ADCL, Ghobad-Nejhad, M, Gibertoni, TB, Grebenc, T, Greilhuber, I, Grishkan, B, Groenewald, JZ, Grube, M, Gruhn, G, Gueidan, C, Gulden, G, Gusmão, LFP, Hafellner, J, Hairaud, M, Halama, M, Hallenberg, N, Halling, RE, Hansen, K, Harder, CB, Heilmann-Clausen, J, Helleman, S, Henriot, A, Hernandez-Restrepo, M, Herve, R, Hobart, C, Hoffmeister, M, Høiland, K, Holec, J, Holien, H, Hughes, K, Hubka, V, Huhtinen, S, Ivancevic, B, Jagers, M, Jaklitsch, W, Jansen, AE, Jayawardena, RS, Jeppesen, TS, Jeppson, M, Johnston, P, Jørgensen, PM, Kärnefelt, I, Kalinina, LB, Kantvilas, G, Karadelev, M, Kasuya, T, Kautmanová, I, Kerrigan, RW, Kirchmair, M, Kiyashko, A, Knapp, DG, Knudsen, H, Knudsen, K, Knutsson, T, Kolarík, M, Kõljalg, U, Košuthová, A, Koszka, A, Kotiranta, H, Kotkova, V, Koukol, O, Kout, J, Kovács, GM, Kríž, M, Kruys, A, Kucera, V, Kudzma, L, Kuhar, F, Kukwa, M, Arun Kumar, TK, Kunca, V, Kušan, I, Kuyper, TW, Lado, C, Læssøe, T, Lainé, P, Langer, E, Larsson, E, Larsson, KH, Laursen, G, Lechat, C, Lee, S, Lendemer, JC, Levin, L, Lindemann, U, Lindström, H, Liu, X, Hernandez, RCL, Llop, E, Locsmándi, C, Lodge, DJ, Loizides, M, Lokös, L, Luangsa-Ard, J, Lüderitz, M, Lumbsch, T, Lutz, M, Mahoney, D, Malysheva, E, Malysheva, V, Manimohan, P, Marin-Felix, Y, Marques, G, Martínez-Gil, R, Marson, G, Mata, G, Matheny, PB, Mathiassen, GH, Matocec, N, Mayrhofer, H, Mehrabi, M, Melo, I, Mešic, A, Methven, AS, Miettinen, O, Romero, AMM, Miller, AN, Mitchell, JK, Moberg, R, Moreau, PA, Moreno, G, Morozova, O, Morte, A, Muggia, L, González, GM, Myllys, L, Nagy, I, Nagy, LG, Neves, MA, Niemelä, T, Nimis, PL, Niveiro, N, Noordeloos, ME, Nordin, A, Noumeur, SR, Novozhilov, Y, Nuytinck, J, Ohenoja, E, Fiuza, PO, Orange, A, Ordynets, A, Ortiz-Santana, B, Pacheco, L, Pál-Fám, F, Palacio, M, Palice, Z, Papp, V, Pärtel, K, Pawlowska, J, Paz, A, Peintner, U, Pennycook, S, Pereira, OL, Daniëls, PP, Capella, MÀPDG, del Amo, CMP, Gorjón, SP, Pérez-Ortega, S, Pérez-Vargas, I, Perry, BA, Petersen, JH, Petersen, RH, Pfister, DH, Phukhamsakda, C, Piatek, M, Piepenbring, M, Pino-Bodas, R, Esquivel, JPP, Pirot, P, Popov, ES, Popoff, O, Álvaro, MP, Printzen, C, Psurtseva, N, Purahong, W, Quijada, L, Rambold, G, Ramírez, NA, Raja, H, Raspé, O, Raymundo, T, Réblová, M, Rebriev, YA, Reyes García, JDD, Ripoll, MÁR, Richard, F, Richardson, MJ, Rico, VJ, Robledo, GL, Barbosa, FR, Rodriguez-Caycedo, C, Rodriguez-Flakus, P, Ronikier, A, Casas, LR, Rusevska, K, Saar, G, Saar, I, Salcedo, I, Martínez, SMS, Montoya, CAS, Sánchez-Ramírez, S, Sandoval-Sierra, JV, Santamaria, S, Monteiro, JS, Schroers, HJ, Schulz, B, Schmidt-Stohn, G, Schumacher, T, Senn-Irlet, B, Ševcíková, H, Shchepin, O, Shirouzu, T, Shiryaev, A, Siepe, K, Sir, EB, Sohrabi, M, Soop, K, Spirin, V, Spribille, T, Stadler, M, Stalpers, J, Stenroos, S, Suija, A, Sunhede, S, Svantesson, S, Svensson, S, Svetasheva, TY, Swierkosz, K, Tamm, H, Taskin, H, Taudière, A, Tedebrand, JO, Lahoz, RT, Temina, M, Thell, A, Thines, M, Thor, G, Thüs, H, Tibell, L, Tibell, S, Timdal, E, Tkalcec, Z, Tønsberg, T, Trichies, G, Triebel, D, Tsurykau, A, Tulloss, RE, Tuovinen, V, Sosa, MU, Urcelay, C, Valade, F, Valenzuela Garza, R, Boom, PVD, Vooren, NV, Vasco-Palacios, AM, Vauras, J, Santos, JMV, Vellinga, E, Verbeken, A, Vetlesen, P, Vizzini, A, Voglmayr, H, Volobuev, S, von Brackel, W, Voronina, E, Walther, G, Watling, R, Weber, E, Wedin, M, Weholt, Ø, Westberg, M, Yurchenko, E, Zehnálek, P, Zhang, H, Zhurbenko, MP & Ekman, S 2018, 'Considerations and consequences of allowing DNA sequence data as types of fungal taxa', IMA Fungus, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 167-175. https://doi.org/10.5598/imafungus.2018.09.01.10
Zamora JC, Svensson M, Kirschner R, Olariaga I, Ryman S, Parra LA et al. Considerations and consequences of allowing DNA sequence data as types of fungal taxa. IMA Fungus. 2018 Jan 1;9(1):167-175. https://doi.org/10.5598/imafungus.2018.09.01.10
Zamora, Juan Carlos ; Svensson, Måns ; Kirschner, Roland ; Olariaga, Ibai ; Ryman, Svengunnar ; Parra, Luis Alberto ; Geml, József ; Rosling, Anna ; Adamčík, Slavomír ; Ahti, Teuvo ; Aime, M. Catherine ; Ainsworth, A. Martyn ; Albert, László ; Albertó, Edgardo ; García, Alberto Altés ; Ageev, Dmitry ; Agerer, Reinhard ; Aguirre-Hudson, Begoña ; Ammirati, Joe ; Andersson, Harry ; Angelini, Claudio ; Antonín, Vladimír ; Aoki, Takayuki ; Aptroot, André ; Argaud, Didier ; Sosa, Blanca Imelda Arguello ; Aronsen, Arne ; Arup, Ulf ; Asgari, Bita ; Assyov, Boris ; Atienza, Violeta ; Bandini, Ditte ; Baptista-Ferreira, João Luís ; Baral, Hans Otto ; Baroni, Tim ; Barreto, Robert Weingart ; Beker, Henry ; Bell, Ann ; Bellanger, Jean Michel ; Bellù, Francesco ; Bemmann, Martin ; Bendiksby, Mika ; Bendiksen, Egil ; Bendiksen, Katriina ; Benedek, Lajos ; Bérešová-Guttová, Anna ; Berger, Franz ; Berndt, Reinhard ; Bernicchia, Annarosa ; Biketova, Alona Yu ; Bizio, Enrico ; Bjork, Curtis ; Boekhout, Teun ; Boertmann, David ; Böhning, Tanja ; Boittin, Florent ; Boluda, Carlos G. ; Boomsluiter, Menno W. ; Borovička, Jan ; Brandrud, Tor Erik ; Braun, Uwe ; Brodo, Irwin ; Bulyonkova, Tatiana ; Burdsall, Harold H. ; Buyck, Bart ; Burgaz, Ana Rosa ; Calatayud, Vicent ; Callac, Philippe ; Campo, Emanuele ; Candusso, Massimo ; Capoen, Brigitte ; Carbó, Joaquim ; Carbone, Matteo ; Castañeda-Ruiz, Rafael F. ; Castellano, Michael A. ; Chen, Jie ; Clerc, Philippe ; Consiglio, Giovanni ; Corriol, Gilles ; Courtecuisse, Régis ; Crespo, Ana ; Cripps, Cathy ; Crous, Pedro W. ; da Silva, Gladstone Alves ; da Silva, Meiriele ; Dam, Marjo ; Dam, Nico ; Dämmrich, Frank ; Das, Kanad ; Davies, Linda ; De Crop, Eske ; De Kesel, Andre ; De Lange, Ruben ; Bonzi, Bárbara De Madrignac ; dela Cruz, Thomas Edison E. ; Delgat, Lynn ; Demoulin, Vincent ; Desjardin, Dennis E. ; Diederich, Paul ; Dima, Bálint ; Dios, Maria Martha ; Divakar, Pradeep Kumar ; Douanla-Meli, Clovis ; Douglas, Brian ; Drechsler-Santos, Elisandro Ricardo ; Dyer, Paul S. ; Eberhardt, Ursula ; Ertz, Damien ; Esteve-Raventós, Fernando ; Etayo Salazar, Javier Angel ; Evenson, Vera ; Eyssartier, Guillaume ; Farkas, Edit ; Favre, Alain ; Fedosova, Anna G. ; Filippa, Mario ; Finy, Péter ; Flakus, Adam ; Fos, Simón ; Fournier, Jacques ; Fraiture, André ; Franchi, Paolo ; Molano, Ana Esperanza Franco ; Friebes, Gernot ; Frisch, Andreas ; Fryday, Alan ; Furci, Giuliana ; Márquez, Ricardo Galán ; Garbelotto, Matteo ; García-Martín, Joaquina María ; Otálora, Mónica A.García ; Sánchez, Dania García ; Gardiennet, Alain ; Garnica, Sigisfredo ; Benavent, Isaac Garrido ; Gates, Genevieve ; Gerlach, Alice da Cruz Lima ; Ghobad-Nejhad, Masoomeh ; Gibertoni, Tatiana B. ; Grebenc, Tine ; Greilhuber, Irmgard ; Grishkan, Bella ; Groenewald, Johannes Z. ; Grube, Martin ; Gruhn, Gérald ; Gueidan, Cécile ; Gulden, Gro ; Gusmão, Luis F.P. ; Hafellner, Josef ; Hairaud, Michel ; Halama, Marek ; Hallenberg, Nils ; Halling, Roy E. ; Hansen, Karen ; Harder, Christoffer Bugge ; Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob ; Helleman, Stip ; Henriot, Alain ; Hernandez-Restrepo, Margarita ; Herve, Raphaël ; Hobart, Caroline ; Hoffmeister, Mascha ; Høiland, Klaus ; Holec, Jan ; Holien, Håkon ; Hughes, Karen ; Hubka, Vit ; Huhtinen, Seppo ; Ivancevic, Boris ; Jagers, Marian ; Jaklitsch, Walter ; Jansen, Anna Elise ; Jayawardena, Ruvishika S. ; Jeppesen, Thomas Stjernegaard ; Jeppson, Mikael ; Johnston, Peter ; Jørgensen, Per Magnus ; Kärnefelt, Ingvar ; Kalinina, Liudmila B. ; Kantvilas, Gintaras ; Karadelev, Mitko ; Kasuya, Taiga ; Kautmanová, Ivona ; Kerrigan, Richard W. ; Kirchmair, Martin ; Kiyashko, Anna ; Knapp, Dániel G. ; Knudsen, Henning ; Knudsen, Kerry ; Knutsson, Tommy ; Kolarík, Miroslav ; Kõljalg, Urmas ; Košuthová, Alica ; Koszka, Attila ; Kotiranta, Heikki ; Kotkova, Vera ; Koukol, Ondrej ; Kout, Jirí ; Kovács, Gábor M. ; Kríž, Martin ; Kruys, Asa ; Kucera, Viktor ; Kudzma, Linas ; Kuhar, Francisco ; Kukwa, Martin ; Arun Kumar, T. K. ; Kunca, Vladimír ; Kušan, Ivana ; Kuyper, Thomas W. ; Lado, Carlos ; Læssøe, Thomas ; Lainé, Patrice ; Langer, Ewald ; Larsson, Ellen ; Larsson, Karl Henrik ; Laursen, Gary ; Lechat, Christian ; Lee, Serena ; Lendemer, James C. ; Levin, Laura ; Lindemann, Uwe ; Lindström, Håkan ; Liu, Xingzhong ; Hernandez, Regulo Carlos Llarena ; Llop, Esteve ; Locsmándi, Csaba ; Lodge, Deborah Jean ; Loizides, Michael ; Lokös, László ; Luangsa-Ard, Jennifer ; Lüderitz, Matthias ; Lumbsch, Thorsten ; Lutz, Matthias ; Mahoney, Dan ; Malysheva, Ekaterina ; Malysheva, Vera ; Manimohan, Patinjareveettil ; Marin-Felix, Yasmina ; Marques, Guilhermina ; Martínez-Gil, Rubén ; Marson, Guy ; Mata, Gerardo ; Matheny, P. Brandon ; Mathiassen, Geir Harald ; Matocec, Neven ; Mayrhofer, Helmut ; Mehrabi, Mehdi ; Melo, Ireneia ; Mešic, Armin ; Methven, Andrew S. ; Miettinen, Otto ; Romero, Ana M.Millanes ; Miller, Andrew N. ; Mitchell, James K. ; Moberg, Roland ; Moreau, Pierre Arthur ; Moreno, Gabriel ; Morozova, Olga ; Morte, Asunción ; Muggia, Lucia ; González, Guillermo Muñoz ; Myllys, Leena ; Nagy, István ; Nagy, László G. ; Neves, Maria Alice ; Niemelä, Tuomo ; Nimis, Pier Luigi ; Niveiro, Nicolas ; Noordeloos, Machiel E. ; Nordin, Anders ; Noumeur, Sara Raouia ; Novozhilov, Yuri ; Nuytinck, Jorinde ; Ohenoja, Esteri ; Fiuza, Patricia Oliveira ; Orange, Alan ; Ordynets, Alexander ; Ortiz-Santana, Beatriz ; Pacheco, Leticia ; Pál-Fám, Ferenc ; Palacio, Melissa ; Palice, Zdenek ; Papp, Viktor ; Pärtel, Kadri ; Pawlowska, Julia ; Paz, Aurelia ; Peintner, Ursula ; Pennycook, Shaun ; Pereira, Olinto Liparini ; Daniëls, Pablo Pérez ; Capella, Miquel À.Pérez De Gregorio ; del Amo, Carlos Manuel Pérez ; Gorjón, Sergio Pérez ; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio ; Pérez-Vargas, Israel ; Perry, Brian A. ; Petersen, Jens H. ; Petersen, Ronald H. ; Pfister, Donald H. ; Phukhamsakda, Chayanard ; Piatek, Marcin ; Piepenbring, Meike ; Pino-Bodas, Raquel ; Esquivel, Juan Pablo Pinzón ; Pirot, Paul ; Popov, Eugene S. ; Popoff, Orlando ; Álvaro, María Prieto ; Printzen, Christian ; Psurtseva, Nadezhda ; Purahong, Witoon ; Quijada, Luis ; Rambold, Gerhard ; Ramírez, Natalia A. ; Raja, Huzefa ; Raspé, Olivier ; Raymundo, Tania ; Réblová, Martina ; Rebriev, Yury A. ; Reyes García, Juan de Dios ; Ripoll, Miguel ángel Ribes ; Richard, Franck ; Richardson, Mike J. ; Rico, Víctor J. ; Robledo, Gerardo Lucio ; Barbosa, Flavia Rodrigues ; Rodriguez-Caycedo, Cristina ; Rodriguez-Flakus, Pamela ; Ronikier, Anna ; Casas, Luis Rubio ; Rusevska, Katerina ; Saar, Günter ; Saar, Irja ; Salcedo, Isabel ; Martínez, Sergio M.Salcedo ; Montoya, Carlos A.Salvador ; Sánchez-Ramírez, Santiago ; Sandoval-Sierra, J. Vladimir ; Santamaria, Sergi ; Monteiro, Josiane Santana ; Schroers, Hans Josef ; Schulz, Barbara ; Schmidt-Stohn, Geert ; Schumacher, Trond ; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice ; Ševcíková, Hana ; Shchepin, Oleg ; Shirouzu, Takashi ; Shiryaev, Anton ; Siepe, Klaus ; Sir, Esteban B. ; Sohrabi, Mohammad ; Soop, Karl ; Spirin, Viacheslav ; Spribille, Toby ; Stadler, Marc ; Stalpers, Joost ; Stenroos, Soili ; Suija, Ave ; Sunhede, Stellan ; Svantesson, Sten ; Svensson, Sigvard ; Svetasheva, Tatyana Yu ; Swierkosz, Krzysztof ; Tamm, Heidi ; Taskin, Hatira ; Taudière, Adrien ; Tedebrand, Jan Olof ; Lahoz, Raúl Tena ; Temina, Marina ; Thell, Arne ; Thines, Marco ; Thor, Göran ; Thüs, Holger ; Tibell, Leif ; Tibell, Sanja ; Timdal, Einar ; Tkalcec, Zdenko ; Tønsberg, Tor ; Trichies, Gérard ; Triebel, Dagmar ; Tsurykau, Andrei ; Tulloss, Rodham E. ; Tuovinen, Veera ; Sosa, Miguel Ulloa ; Urcelay, Carlos ; Valade, François ; Valenzuela Garza, Ricardo ; Boom, Pieter van den ; Vooren, Nicolas Van ; Vasco-Palacios, Aida M. ; Vauras, Jukka ; Santos, Juan Manuel Velasco ; Vellinga, Else ; Verbeken, Annemieke ; Vetlesen, Per ; Vizzini, Alfredo ; Voglmayr, Hermann ; Volobuev, Sergey ; von Brackel, Wolfgang ; Voronina, Elena ; Walther, Grit ; Watling, Roy ; Weber, Evi ; Wedin, Mats ; Weholt, Øyvind ; Westberg, Martin ; Yurchenko, Eugene ; Zehnálek, Petr ; Zhang, Huang ; Zhurbenko, Mikhail P. ; Ekman, Stefan. / Considerations and consequences of allowing DNA sequence data as types of fungal taxa. In: IMA Fungus. 2018 ; Vol. 9, No. 1. pp. 167-175.
@article{6dd5e47eb43b479684564685ffdbd8ec,
title = "Considerations and consequences of allowing DNA sequence data as types of fungal taxa",
abstract = "Nomenclatural type definitions are one of the most important concepts in biological nomenclature. Being physical objects that can be re-studied by other researchers, types permanently link taxonomy (an artificial agreement to classify biological diversity) with nomenclature (an artificial agreement to name biological diversity). Two proposals to amend the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), allowing DNA sequences alone (of any region and extent) to serve as types of taxon names for voucherless fungi (mainly putative taxa from environmental DNA sequences), have been submitted to be voted on at the 11th International Mycological Congress (Puerto Rico, July 2018). We consider various genetic processes affecting the distribution of alleles among taxa and find that alleles may not consistently and uniquely represent the species within which they are contained. Should the proposals be accepted, the meaning of nomenclatural types would change in a fundamental way from physical objects as sources of data to the data themselves. Such changes are conducive to irreproducible science, the potential typification on artefactual data, and massive creation of names with low information content, ultimately causing nomenclatural instability and unnecessary work for future researchers that would stall future explorations of fungal diversity. We conclude that the acceptance of DNA sequences alone as types of names of taxa, under the terms used in the current proposals, is unnecessary and would not solve the problem of naming putative taxa known only from DNA sequences in a scientifically defensible way. As an alternative, we highlight the use of formulas for naming putative taxa (candidate taxa) that do not require any modification of the ICN.",
keywords = "IMC11 nomenclature, Speciation, Taxonomy, Typification, Voucherless fungi",
author = "Zamora, {Juan Carlos} and M{\aa}ns Svensson and Roland Kirschner and Ibai Olariaga and Svengunnar Ryman and Parra, {Luis Alberto} and J{\'o}zsef Geml and Anna Rosling and Slavom{\'i}r Adamč{\'i}k and Teuvo Ahti and Aime, {M. Catherine} and Ainsworth, {A. Martyn} and L{\'a}szl{\'o} Albert and Edgardo Albert{\'o} and Garc{\'i}a, {Alberto Alt{\'e}s} and Dmitry Ageev and Reinhard Agerer and Bego{\~n}a Aguirre-Hudson and Joe Ammirati and Harry Andersson and Claudio Angelini and Vladim{\'i}r Anton{\'i}n and Takayuki Aoki and Andr{\'e} Aptroot and Didier Argaud and Sosa, {Blanca Imelda Arguello} and Arne Aronsen and Ulf Arup and Bita Asgari and Boris Assyov and Violeta Atienza and Ditte Bandini and Baptista-Ferreira, {Jo{\~a}o Lu{\'i}s} and Baral, {Hans Otto} and Tim Baroni and Barreto, {Robert Weingart} and Henry Beker and Ann Bell and Bellanger, {Jean Michel} and Francesco Bell{\`u} and Martin Bemmann and Mika Bendiksby and Egil Bendiksen and Katriina Bendiksen and Lajos Benedek and Anna B{\'e}rešov{\'a}-Guttov{\'a} and Franz Berger and Reinhard Berndt and Annarosa Bernicchia and Biketova, {Alona Yu} and Enrico Bizio and Curtis Bjork and Teun Boekhout and David Boertmann and Tanja B{\"o}hning and Florent Boittin and Boluda, {Carlos G.} and Boomsluiter, {Menno W.} and Jan Borovička and Brandrud, {Tor Erik} and Uwe Braun and Irwin Brodo and Tatiana Bulyonkova and Burdsall, {Harold H.} and Bart Buyck and Burgaz, {Ana Rosa} and Vicent Calatayud and Philippe Callac and Emanuele Campo and Massimo Candusso and Brigitte Capoen and Joaquim Carb{\'o} and Matteo Carbone and Casta{\~n}eda-Ruiz, {Rafael F.} and Castellano, {Michael A.} and Jie Chen and Philippe Clerc and Giovanni Consiglio and Gilles Corriol and R{\'e}gis Courtecuisse and Ana Crespo and Cathy Cripps and Crous, {Pedro W.} and {da Silva}, {Gladstone Alves} and {da Silva}, Meiriele and Marjo Dam and Nico Dam and Frank D{\"a}mmrich and Kanad Das and Linda Davies and {De Crop}, Eske and {De Kesel}, Andre and {De Lange}, Ruben and Bonzi, {B{\'a}rbara De Madrignac} and {dela Cruz}, {Thomas Edison E.} and Lynn Delgat and Vincent Demoulin and Desjardin, {Dennis E.} and Paul Diederich and B{\'a}lint Dima and Dios, {Maria Martha} and Divakar, {Pradeep Kumar} and Clovis Douanla-Meli and Brian Douglas and Drechsler-Santos, {Elisandro Ricardo} and Dyer, {Paul S.} and Ursula Eberhardt and Damien Ertz and Fernando Esteve-Ravent{\'o}s and {Etayo Salazar}, {Javier Angel} and Vera Evenson and Guillaume Eyssartier and Edit Farkas and Alain Favre and Fedosova, {Anna G.} and Mario Filippa and P{\'e}ter Finy and Adam Flakus and Sim{\'o}n Fos and Jacques Fournier and Andr{\'e} Fraiture and Paolo Franchi and Molano, {Ana Esperanza Franco} and Gernot Friebes and Andreas Frisch and Alan Fryday and Giuliana Furci and M{\'a}rquez, {Ricardo Gal{\'a}n} and Matteo Garbelotto and Garc{\'i}a-Mart{\'i}n, {Joaquina Mar{\'i}a} and Ot{\'a}lora, {M{\'o}nica A.Garc{\'i}a} and S{\'a}nchez, {Dania Garc{\'i}a} and Alain Gardiennet and Sigisfredo Garnica and Benavent, {Isaac Garrido} and Genevieve Gates and Gerlach, {Alice da Cruz Lima} and Masoomeh Ghobad-Nejhad and Gibertoni, {Tatiana B.} and Tine Grebenc and Irmgard Greilhuber and Bella Grishkan and Groenewald, {Johannes Z.} and Martin Grube and G{\'e}rald Gruhn and C{\'e}cile Gueidan and Gro Gulden and Gusm{\~a}o, {Luis F.P.} and Josef Hafellner and Michel Hairaud and Marek Halama and Nils Hallenberg and Halling, {Roy E.} and Karen Hansen and Harder, {Christoffer Bugge} and Jacob Heilmann-Clausen and Stip Helleman and Alain Henriot and Margarita Hernandez-Restrepo and Rapha{\"e}l Herve and Caroline Hobart and Mascha Hoffmeister and Klaus H{\o}iland and Jan Holec and H{\aa}kon Holien and Karen Hughes and Vit Hubka and Seppo Huhtinen and Boris Ivancevic and Marian Jagers and Walter Jaklitsch and Jansen, {Anna Elise} and Jayawardena, {Ruvishika S.} and Jeppesen, {Thomas Stjernegaard} and Mikael Jeppson and Peter Johnston and J{\o}rgensen, {Per Magnus} and Ingvar K{\"a}rnefelt and Kalinina, {Liudmila B.} and Gintaras Kantvilas and Mitko Karadelev and Taiga Kasuya and Ivona Kautmanov{\'a} and Kerrigan, {Richard W.} and Martin Kirchmair and Anna Kiyashko and Knapp, {D{\'a}niel G.} and Henning Knudsen and Kerry Knudsen and Tommy Knutsson and Miroslav Kolar{\'i}k and Urmas K{\~o}ljalg and Alica Košuthov{\'a} and Attila Koszka and Heikki Kotiranta and Vera Kotkova and Ondrej Koukol and Jir{\'i} Kout and Kov{\'a}cs, {G{\'a}bor M.} and Martin Kr{\'i}ž and Asa Kruys and Viktor Kucera and Linas Kudzma and Francisco Kuhar and Martin Kukwa and {Arun Kumar}, {T. K.} and Vladim{\'i}r Kunca and Ivana Kušan and Kuyper, {Thomas W.} and Carlos Lado and Thomas L{\ae}ss{\o}e and Patrice Lain{\'e} and Ewald Langer and Ellen Larsson and Larsson, {Karl Henrik} and Gary Laursen and Christian Lechat and Serena Lee and Lendemer, {James C.} and Laura Levin and Uwe Lindemann and H{\aa}kan Lindstr{\"o}m and Xingzhong Liu and Hernandez, {Regulo Carlos Llarena} and Esteve Llop and Csaba Locsm{\'a}ndi and Lodge, {Deborah Jean} and Michael Loizides and L{\'a}szl{\'o} Lok{\"o}s and Jennifer Luangsa-Ard and Matthias L{\"u}deritz and Thorsten Lumbsch and Matthias Lutz and Dan Mahoney and Ekaterina Malysheva and Vera Malysheva and Patinjareveettil Manimohan and Yasmina Marin-Felix and Guilhermina Marques and Rub{\'e}n Mart{\'i}nez-Gil and Guy Marson and Gerardo Mata and Matheny, {P. Brandon} and Mathiassen, {Geir Harald} and Neven Matocec and Helmut Mayrhofer and Mehdi Mehrabi and Ireneia Melo and Armin Mešic and Methven, {Andrew S.} and Otto Miettinen and Romero, {Ana M.Millanes} and Miller, {Andrew N.} and Mitchell, {James K.} and Roland Moberg and Moreau, {Pierre Arthur} and Gabriel Moreno and Olga Morozova and Asunci{\'o}n Morte and Lucia Muggia and Gonz{\'a}lez, {Guillermo Mu{\~n}oz} and Leena Myllys and Istv{\'a}n Nagy and Nagy, {L{\'a}szl{\'o} G.} and Neves, {Maria Alice} and Tuomo Niemel{\"a} and Nimis, {Pier Luigi} and Nicolas Niveiro and Noordeloos, {Machiel E.} and Anders Nordin and Noumeur, {Sara Raouia} and Yuri Novozhilov and Jorinde Nuytinck and Esteri Ohenoja and Fiuza, {Patricia Oliveira} and Alan Orange and Alexander Ordynets and Beatriz Ortiz-Santana and Leticia Pacheco and Ferenc P{\'a}l-F{\'a}m and Melissa Palacio and Zdenek Palice and Viktor Papp and Kadri P{\"a}rtel and Julia Pawlowska and Aurelia Paz and Ursula Peintner and Shaun Pennycook and Pereira, {Olinto Liparini} and Dani{\"e}ls, {Pablo P{\'e}rez} and Capella, {Miquel {\`A}.P{\'e}rez De Gregorio} and {del Amo}, {Carlos Manuel P{\'e}rez} and Gorj{\'o}n, {Sergio P{\'e}rez} and Sergio P{\'e}rez-Ortega and Israel P{\'e}rez-Vargas and Perry, {Brian A.} and Petersen, {Jens H.} and Petersen, {Ronald H.} and Pfister, {Donald H.} and Chayanard Phukhamsakda and Marcin Piatek and Meike Piepenbring and Raquel Pino-Bodas and Esquivel, {Juan Pablo Pinz{\'o}n} and Paul Pirot and Popov, {Eugene S.} and Orlando Popoff and {\'A}lvaro, {Mar{\'i}a Prieto} and Christian Printzen and Nadezhda Psurtseva and Witoon Purahong and Luis Quijada and Gerhard Rambold and Ram{\'i}rez, {Natalia A.} and Huzefa Raja and Olivier Rasp{\'e} and Tania Raymundo and Martina R{\'e}blov{\'a} and Rebriev, {Yury A.} and {Reyes Garc{\'i}a}, {Juan de Dios} and Ripoll, {Miguel {\'a}ngel Ribes} and Franck Richard and Richardson, {Mike J.} and Rico, {V{\'i}ctor J.} and Robledo, {Gerardo Lucio} and Barbosa, {Flavia Rodrigues} and Cristina Rodriguez-Caycedo and Pamela Rodriguez-Flakus and Anna Ronikier and Casas, {Luis Rubio} and Katerina Rusevska and G{\"u}nter Saar and Irja Saar and Isabel Salcedo and Mart{\'i}nez, {Sergio M.Salcedo} and Montoya, {Carlos A.Salvador} and Santiago S{\'a}nchez-Ram{\'i}rez and Sandoval-Sierra, {J. Vladimir} and Sergi Santamaria and Monteiro, {Josiane Santana} and Schroers, {Hans Josef} and Barbara Schulz and Geert Schmidt-Stohn and Trond Schumacher and Beatrice Senn-Irlet and Hana Ševc{\'i}kov{\'a} and Oleg Shchepin and Takashi Shirouzu and Anton Shiryaev and Klaus Siepe and Sir, {Esteban B.} and Mohammad Sohrabi and Karl Soop and Viacheslav Spirin and Toby Spribille and Marc Stadler and Joost Stalpers and Soili Stenroos and Ave Suija and Stellan Sunhede and Sten Svantesson and Sigvard Svensson and Svetasheva, {Tatyana Yu} and Krzysztof Swierkosz and Heidi Tamm and Hatira Taskin and Adrien Taudi{\`e}re and Tedebrand, {Jan Olof} and Lahoz, {Ra{\'u}l Tena} and Marina Temina and Arne Thell and Marco Thines and G{\"o}ran Thor and Holger Th{\"u}s and Leif Tibell and Sanja Tibell and Einar Timdal and Zdenko Tkalcec and Tor T{\o}nsberg and G{\'e}rard Trichies and Dagmar Triebel and Andrei Tsurykau and Tulloss, {Rodham E.} and Veera Tuovinen and Sosa, {Miguel Ulloa} and Carlos Urcelay and Fran{\cc}ois Valade and {Valenzuela Garza}, Ricardo and Boom, {Pieter van den} and Vooren, {Nicolas Van} and Vasco-Palacios, {Aida M.} and Jukka Vauras and Santos, {Juan Manuel Velasco} and Else Vellinga and Annemieke Verbeken and Per Vetlesen and Alfredo Vizzini and Hermann Voglmayr and Sergey Volobuev and {von Brackel}, Wolfgang and Elena Voronina and Grit Walther and Roy Watling and Evi Weber and Mats Wedin and {\O}yvind Weholt and Martin Westberg and Eugene Yurchenko and Petr Zehn{\'a}lek and Huang Zhang and Zhurbenko, {Mikhail P.} and Stefan Ekman",
year = "2018",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.5598/imafungus.2018.09.01.10",
language = "English",
volume = "9",
pages = "167--175",
journal = "IMA Fungus",
issn = "2210-6340",
publisher = "International Mycological Association",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Considerations and consequences of allowing DNA sequence data as types of fungal taxa

AU - Zamora, Juan Carlos

AU - Svensson, Måns

AU - Kirschner, Roland

AU - Olariaga, Ibai

AU - Ryman, Svengunnar

AU - Parra, Luis Alberto

AU - Geml, József

AU - Rosling, Anna

AU - Adamčík, Slavomír

AU - Ahti, Teuvo

AU - Aime, M. Catherine

AU - Ainsworth, A. Martyn

AU - Albert, László

AU - Albertó, Edgardo

AU - García, Alberto Altés

AU - Ageev, Dmitry

AU - Agerer, Reinhard

AU - Aguirre-Hudson, Begoña

AU - Ammirati, Joe

AU - Andersson, Harry

AU - Angelini, Claudio

AU - Antonín, Vladimír

AU - Aoki, Takayuki

AU - Aptroot, André

AU - Argaud, Didier

AU - Sosa, Blanca Imelda Arguello

AU - Aronsen, Arne

AU - Arup, Ulf

AU - Asgari, Bita

AU - Assyov, Boris

AU - Atienza, Violeta

AU - Bandini, Ditte

AU - Baptista-Ferreira, João Luís

AU - Baral, Hans Otto

AU - Baroni, Tim

AU - Barreto, Robert Weingart

AU - Beker, Henry

AU - Bell, Ann

AU - Bellanger, Jean Michel

AU - Bellù, Francesco

AU - Bemmann, Martin

AU - Bendiksby, Mika

AU - Bendiksen, Egil

AU - Bendiksen, Katriina

AU - Benedek, Lajos

AU - Bérešová-Guttová, Anna

AU - Berger, Franz

AU - Berndt, Reinhard

AU - Bernicchia, Annarosa

AU - Biketova, Alona Yu

AU - Bizio, Enrico

AU - Bjork, Curtis

AU - Boekhout, Teun

AU - Boertmann, David

AU - Böhning, Tanja

AU - Boittin, Florent

AU - Boluda, Carlos G.

AU - Boomsluiter, Menno W.

AU - Borovička, Jan

AU - Brandrud, Tor Erik

AU - Braun, Uwe

AU - Brodo, Irwin

AU - Bulyonkova, Tatiana

AU - Burdsall, Harold H.

AU - Buyck, Bart

AU - Burgaz, Ana Rosa

AU - Calatayud, Vicent

AU - Callac, Philippe

AU - Campo, Emanuele

AU - Candusso, Massimo

AU - Capoen, Brigitte

AU - Carbó, Joaquim

AU - Carbone, Matteo

AU - Castañeda-Ruiz, Rafael F.

AU - Castellano, Michael A.

AU - Chen, Jie

AU - Clerc, Philippe

AU - Consiglio, Giovanni

AU - Corriol, Gilles

AU - Courtecuisse, Régis

AU - Crespo, Ana

AU - Cripps, Cathy

AU - Crous, Pedro W.

AU - da Silva, Gladstone Alves

AU - da Silva, Meiriele

AU - Dam, Marjo

AU - Dam, Nico

AU - Dämmrich, Frank

AU - Das, Kanad

AU - Davies, Linda

AU - De Crop, Eske

AU - De Kesel, Andre

AU - De Lange, Ruben

AU - Bonzi, Bárbara De Madrignac

AU - dela Cruz, Thomas Edison E.

AU - Delgat, Lynn

AU - Demoulin, Vincent

AU - Desjardin, Dennis E.

AU - Diederich, Paul

AU - Dima, Bálint

AU - Dios, Maria Martha

AU - Divakar, Pradeep Kumar

AU - Douanla-Meli, Clovis

AU - Douglas, Brian

AU - Drechsler-Santos, Elisandro Ricardo

AU - Dyer, Paul S.

AU - Eberhardt, Ursula

AU - Ertz, Damien

AU - Esteve-Raventós, Fernando

AU - Etayo Salazar, Javier Angel

AU - Evenson, Vera

AU - Eyssartier, Guillaume

AU - Farkas, Edit

AU - Favre, Alain

AU - Fedosova, Anna G.

AU - Filippa, Mario

AU - Finy, Péter

AU - Flakus, Adam

AU - Fos, Simón

AU - Fournier, Jacques

AU - Fraiture, André

AU - Franchi, Paolo

AU - Molano, Ana Esperanza Franco

AU - Friebes, Gernot

AU - Frisch, Andreas

AU - Fryday, Alan

AU - Furci, Giuliana

AU - Márquez, Ricardo Galán

AU - Garbelotto, Matteo

AU - García-Martín, Joaquina María

AU - Otálora, Mónica A.García

AU - Sánchez, Dania García

AU - Gardiennet, Alain

AU - Garnica, Sigisfredo

AU - Benavent, Isaac Garrido

AU - Gates, Genevieve

AU - Gerlach, Alice da Cruz Lima

AU - Ghobad-Nejhad, Masoomeh

AU - Gibertoni, Tatiana B.

AU - Grebenc, Tine

AU - Greilhuber, Irmgard

AU - Grishkan, Bella

AU - Groenewald, Johannes Z.

AU - Grube, Martin

AU - Gruhn, Gérald

AU - Gueidan, Cécile

AU - Gulden, Gro

AU - Gusmão, Luis F.P.

AU - Hafellner, Josef

AU - Hairaud, Michel

AU - Halama, Marek

AU - Hallenberg, Nils

AU - Halling, Roy E.

AU - Hansen, Karen

AU - Harder, Christoffer Bugge

AU - Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob

AU - Helleman, Stip

AU - Henriot, Alain

AU - Hernandez-Restrepo, Margarita

AU - Herve, Raphaël

AU - Hobart, Caroline

AU - Hoffmeister, Mascha

AU - Høiland, Klaus

AU - Holec, Jan

AU - Holien, Håkon

AU - Hughes, Karen

AU - Hubka, Vit

AU - Huhtinen, Seppo

AU - Ivancevic, Boris

AU - Jagers, Marian

AU - Jaklitsch, Walter

AU - Jansen, Anna Elise

AU - Jayawardena, Ruvishika S.

AU - Jeppesen, Thomas Stjernegaard

AU - Jeppson, Mikael

AU - Johnston, Peter

AU - Jørgensen, Per Magnus

AU - Kärnefelt, Ingvar

AU - Kalinina, Liudmila B.

AU - Kantvilas, Gintaras

AU - Karadelev, Mitko

AU - Kasuya, Taiga

AU - Kautmanová, Ivona

AU - Kerrigan, Richard W.

AU - Kirchmair, Martin

AU - Kiyashko, Anna

AU - Knapp, Dániel G.

AU - Knudsen, Henning

AU - Knudsen, Kerry

AU - Knutsson, Tommy

AU - Kolarík, Miroslav

AU - Kõljalg, Urmas

AU - Košuthová, Alica

AU - Koszka, Attila

AU - Kotiranta, Heikki

AU - Kotkova, Vera

AU - Koukol, Ondrej

AU - Kout, Jirí

AU - Kovács, Gábor M.

AU - Kríž, Martin

AU - Kruys, Asa

AU - Kucera, Viktor

AU - Kudzma, Linas

AU - Kuhar, Francisco

AU - Kukwa, Martin

AU - Arun Kumar, T. K.

AU - Kunca, Vladimír

AU - Kušan, Ivana

AU - Kuyper, Thomas W.

AU - Lado, Carlos

AU - Læssøe, Thomas

AU - Lainé, Patrice

AU - Langer, Ewald

AU - Larsson, Ellen

AU - Larsson, Karl Henrik

AU - Laursen, Gary

AU - Lechat, Christian

AU - Lee, Serena

AU - Lendemer, James C.

AU - Levin, Laura

AU - Lindemann, Uwe

AU - Lindström, Håkan

AU - Liu, Xingzhong

AU - Hernandez, Regulo Carlos Llarena

AU - Llop, Esteve

AU - Locsmándi, Csaba

AU - Lodge, Deborah Jean

AU - Loizides, Michael

AU - Lokös, László

AU - Luangsa-Ard, Jennifer

AU - Lüderitz, Matthias

AU - Lumbsch, Thorsten

AU - Lutz, Matthias

AU - Mahoney, Dan

AU - Malysheva, Ekaterina

AU - Malysheva, Vera

AU - Manimohan, Patinjareveettil

AU - Marin-Felix, Yasmina

AU - Marques, Guilhermina

AU - Martínez-Gil, Rubén

AU - Marson, Guy

AU - Mata, Gerardo

AU - Matheny, P. Brandon

AU - Mathiassen, Geir Harald

AU - Matocec, Neven

AU - Mayrhofer, Helmut

AU - Mehrabi, Mehdi

AU - Melo, Ireneia

AU - Mešic, Armin

AU - Methven, Andrew S.

AU - Miettinen, Otto

AU - Romero, Ana M.Millanes

AU - Miller, Andrew N.

AU - Mitchell, James K.

AU - Moberg, Roland

AU - Moreau, Pierre Arthur

AU - Moreno, Gabriel

AU - Morozova, Olga

AU - Morte, Asunción

AU - Muggia, Lucia

AU - González, Guillermo Muñoz

AU - Myllys, Leena

AU - Nagy, István

AU - Nagy, László G.

AU - Neves, Maria Alice

AU - Niemelä, Tuomo

AU - Nimis, Pier Luigi

AU - Niveiro, Nicolas

AU - Noordeloos, Machiel E.

AU - Nordin, Anders

AU - Noumeur, Sara Raouia

AU - Novozhilov, Yuri

AU - Nuytinck, Jorinde

AU - Ohenoja, Esteri

AU - Fiuza, Patricia Oliveira

AU - Orange, Alan

AU - Ordynets, Alexander

AU - Ortiz-Santana, Beatriz

AU - Pacheco, Leticia

AU - Pál-Fám, Ferenc

AU - Palacio, Melissa

AU - Palice, Zdenek

AU - Papp, Viktor

AU - Pärtel, Kadri

AU - Pawlowska, Julia

AU - Paz, Aurelia

AU - Peintner, Ursula

AU - Pennycook, Shaun

AU - Pereira, Olinto Liparini

AU - Daniëls, Pablo Pérez

AU - Capella, Miquel À.Pérez De Gregorio

AU - del Amo, Carlos Manuel Pérez

AU - Gorjón, Sergio Pérez

AU - Pérez-Ortega, Sergio

AU - Pérez-Vargas, Israel

AU - Perry, Brian A.

AU - Petersen, Jens H.

AU - Petersen, Ronald H.

AU - Pfister, Donald H.

AU - Phukhamsakda, Chayanard

AU - Piatek, Marcin

AU - Piepenbring, Meike

AU - Pino-Bodas, Raquel

AU - Esquivel, Juan Pablo Pinzón

AU - Pirot, Paul

AU - Popov, Eugene S.

AU - Popoff, Orlando

AU - Álvaro, María Prieto

AU - Printzen, Christian

AU - Psurtseva, Nadezhda

AU - Purahong, Witoon

AU - Quijada, Luis

AU - Rambold, Gerhard

AU - Ramírez, Natalia A.

AU - Raja, Huzefa

AU - Raspé, Olivier

AU - Raymundo, Tania

AU - Réblová, Martina

AU - Rebriev, Yury A.

AU - Reyes García, Juan de Dios

AU - Ripoll, Miguel ángel Ribes

AU - Richard, Franck

AU - Richardson, Mike J.

AU - Rico, Víctor J.

AU - Robledo, Gerardo Lucio

AU - Barbosa, Flavia Rodrigues

AU - Rodriguez-Caycedo, Cristina

AU - Rodriguez-Flakus, Pamela

AU - Ronikier, Anna

AU - Casas, Luis Rubio

AU - Rusevska, Katerina

AU - Saar, Günter

AU - Saar, Irja

AU - Salcedo, Isabel

AU - Martínez, Sergio M.Salcedo

AU - Montoya, Carlos A.Salvador

AU - Sánchez-Ramírez, Santiago

AU - Sandoval-Sierra, J. Vladimir

AU - Santamaria, Sergi

AU - Monteiro, Josiane Santana

AU - Schroers, Hans Josef

AU - Schulz, Barbara

AU - Schmidt-Stohn, Geert

AU - Schumacher, Trond

AU - Senn-Irlet, Beatrice

AU - Ševcíková, Hana

AU - Shchepin, Oleg

AU - Shirouzu, Takashi

AU - Shiryaev, Anton

AU - Siepe, Klaus

AU - Sir, Esteban B.

AU - Sohrabi, Mohammad

AU - Soop, Karl

AU - Spirin, Viacheslav

AU - Spribille, Toby

AU - Stadler, Marc

AU - Stalpers, Joost

AU - Stenroos, Soili

AU - Suija, Ave

AU - Sunhede, Stellan

AU - Svantesson, Sten

AU - Svensson, Sigvard

AU - Svetasheva, Tatyana Yu

AU - Swierkosz, Krzysztof

AU - Tamm, Heidi

AU - Taskin, Hatira

AU - Taudière, Adrien

AU - Tedebrand, Jan Olof

AU - Lahoz, Raúl Tena

AU - Temina, Marina

AU - Thell, Arne

AU - Thines, Marco

AU - Thor, Göran

AU - Thüs, Holger

AU - Tibell, Leif

AU - Tibell, Sanja

AU - Timdal, Einar

AU - Tkalcec, Zdenko

AU - Tønsberg, Tor

AU - Trichies, Gérard

AU - Triebel, Dagmar

AU - Tsurykau, Andrei

AU - Tulloss, Rodham E.

AU - Tuovinen, Veera

AU - Sosa, Miguel Ulloa

AU - Urcelay, Carlos

AU - Valade, François

AU - Valenzuela Garza, Ricardo

AU - Boom, Pieter van den

AU - Vooren, Nicolas Van

AU - Vasco-Palacios, Aida M.

AU - Vauras, Jukka

AU - Santos, Juan Manuel Velasco

AU - Vellinga, Else

AU - Verbeken, Annemieke

AU - Vetlesen, Per

AU - Vizzini, Alfredo

AU - Voglmayr, Hermann

AU - Volobuev, Sergey

AU - von Brackel, Wolfgang

AU - Voronina, Elena

AU - Walther, Grit

AU - Watling, Roy

AU - Weber, Evi

AU - Wedin, Mats

AU - Weholt, Øyvind

AU - Westberg, Martin

AU - Yurchenko, Eugene

AU - Zehnálek, Petr

AU - Zhang, Huang

AU - Zhurbenko, Mikhail P.

AU - Ekman, Stefan

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - Nomenclatural type definitions are one of the most important concepts in biological nomenclature. Being physical objects that can be re-studied by other researchers, types permanently link taxonomy (an artificial agreement to classify biological diversity) with nomenclature (an artificial agreement to name biological diversity). Two proposals to amend the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), allowing DNA sequences alone (of any region and extent) to serve as types of taxon names for voucherless fungi (mainly putative taxa from environmental DNA sequences), have been submitted to be voted on at the 11th International Mycological Congress (Puerto Rico, July 2018). We consider various genetic processes affecting the distribution of alleles among taxa and find that alleles may not consistently and uniquely represent the species within which they are contained. Should the proposals be accepted, the meaning of nomenclatural types would change in a fundamental way from physical objects as sources of data to the data themselves. Such changes are conducive to irreproducible science, the potential typification on artefactual data, and massive creation of names with low information content, ultimately causing nomenclatural instability and unnecessary work for future researchers that would stall future explorations of fungal diversity. We conclude that the acceptance of DNA sequences alone as types of names of taxa, under the terms used in the current proposals, is unnecessary and would not solve the problem of naming putative taxa known only from DNA sequences in a scientifically defensible way. As an alternative, we highlight the use of formulas for naming putative taxa (candidate taxa) that do not require any modification of the ICN.

AB - Nomenclatural type definitions are one of the most important concepts in biological nomenclature. Being physical objects that can be re-studied by other researchers, types permanently link taxonomy (an artificial agreement to classify biological diversity) with nomenclature (an artificial agreement to name biological diversity). Two proposals to amend the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), allowing DNA sequences alone (of any region and extent) to serve as types of taxon names for voucherless fungi (mainly putative taxa from environmental DNA sequences), have been submitted to be voted on at the 11th International Mycological Congress (Puerto Rico, July 2018). We consider various genetic processes affecting the distribution of alleles among taxa and find that alleles may not consistently and uniquely represent the species within which they are contained. Should the proposals be accepted, the meaning of nomenclatural types would change in a fundamental way from physical objects as sources of data to the data themselves. Such changes are conducive to irreproducible science, the potential typification on artefactual data, and massive creation of names with low information content, ultimately causing nomenclatural instability and unnecessary work for future researchers that would stall future explorations of fungal diversity. We conclude that the acceptance of DNA sequences alone as types of names of taxa, under the terms used in the current proposals, is unnecessary and would not solve the problem of naming putative taxa known only from DNA sequences in a scientifically defensible way. As an alternative, we highlight the use of formulas for naming putative taxa (candidate taxa) that do not require any modification of the ICN.

KW - IMC11 nomenclature

KW - Speciation

KW - Taxonomy

KW - Typification

KW - Voucherless fungi

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85052309383&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85052309383&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.5598/imafungus.2018.09.01.10

DO - 10.5598/imafungus.2018.09.01.10

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85052309383

VL - 9

SP - 167

EP - 175

JO - IMA Fungus

JF - IMA Fungus

SN - 2210-6340

IS - 1

ER -