Continuum Mechanics for Higher Stage Micropolar Materials (2nd Report, Mechanical Balance Laws and Extended Concept of Bimoment)

Kazuyuki Shizawa, Kunihiro Takahashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Mechanical balance laws for micropolar materials stage-2 are discussed on the basis of results of the previous report. The balance equations for mass, force and moment in stage-2 are derived by averaging the balance laws of stage-zero up to stage-2. It is indicated that one more balance law has to be considered, which is those of second-order moment, in order to let the balance equation system be a complete set. The missing equation is gives as the average of the balance equation for the above second-order moment of stage-zero. The authors define a new internal force characterizing the materials of stage-2 and name it “bicouple stress”. This is a second order moment due to the geometric mechanism of multimicrostructures of higher-stage micropolar materials. Furthermore, it is discussed that the bicouple stress extends the concept of bimoment in the theory of thin-walled structures to three-dimensional ones.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2363-2369
Number of pages7
JournalTransactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers Series A
Issue number519
Publication statusPublished - 1989 Jan 1
Externally publishedYes



  • Balance Laws
  • Bimoment
  • Continuum Mechanics
  • Higherstage
  • Internal Rotation
  • Microtorsional Rotation
  • Polar Material
  • Second-order Moment of Force

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

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