We induced differentiation of human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMCs) and menstrual blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MMCs) into endometrial stroma-like cells, which could be useful for cell therapy to support embryo implantation. Interestingly, the expression patterns of surface markers were similar among AMCs, MMCs, and endometrial stromal cells. In addition, whereas treatment with estrogen and progesterone was not very effective for decidualizing AMCs and MMCs, treatment with 8-Br-cAMP prompted remarkable morphological changes in these cells as well as increased expression of decidualization markers (prolactin and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1) and attenuated expression of surface markers unique to mesenchymal stem cells. These results demonstrated that bone marrow-derived stem cells, which are considered a potential source of endometrial progenitor cells, as well as AMCs and MMCs show in vitro decidualization potential, which is characteristic of endometrial stromal cells.
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