Denosumab-induced hypocalcemia is sometimes severe, and although a natural vitamin D/calcium combination is used to prevent hypocalcemia, some patients rapidly develop severe hypocalcemia even under supplementation. It is clinically important to predict this risk. This study aimed to develop a risk prediction model for grade ≥2 hypocalcemia within 28 days after the first denosumab dose under natural vitamin D/calcium supplementation. Using a large database containing multicenter practice data, 2399 patients with bone metastasis who were treated with denosumab between June 2013 and May 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Background factors in patients who developed grade ≥2 hypocalcemia within 28 days after the first denosumab dose and those who did not were compared by univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis was conducted to develop a risk prediction model. The model was evaluated for discriminant performance (receiver operating characteristic–area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity) and predictive performance (calibration slope). A total of 124 patients in the hypocalcemia group and 1191 patients in the nonhypocalcemia group were extracted. A risk prediction model consisting of sex, calcium, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, osteoporosis, breast cancer, gastric cancer, proton pump inhibitor combination, and pretreatment with zoledronic acid was developed. The receiver operating characteristic–area under the curve was 0.87. Sensitivity and specificity were 83% and 81%, respectively, and the calibration slope indicated acceptable agreement between observed and predicted risk. This model appears to be useful to predict the risk of denosumab-induced hypocalcemia and thus should be helpful for risk management of denosumab treatment in patients with bone metastases.
- cholecalciferol (vitamin D3)/calcium combination
- risk prediction model
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)