To study the time-course relationship between vascular functions and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in type 2 diabetes, we investigated vascular function and associated protein expression, including cyclo-oxygenase (COX), ER stress, and apoptotic markers, in renal arteries (RA) from type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats at the young adult (4 months old) and aged (18 months old) stages. In the RA of aged OLETF (vs. young OLETF), we found: (1) Increased contractions induced by uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up4A) and phenylephrine, (2) decreased relaxation and increased contraction induced by acetylcholine (ACh) at lower and higher concentrations, respectively, and (3) increased expression of COX-1 and C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP, a pro-apoptotic protein). In aged rats, the expression of COX-1, COX-2, PDI (an ER protein disulfide isomerase), Bax (a proapoptotic marker), and CHOP were increased in RA from OLETF rats (vs. age-matched control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka [LETO] rats). Up-regulation of PDI and Bax were seen in the RA from young OLETF (vs. young LETO) rats. No age-related alterations were apparent in the above changes in RA from LETO rats, excluding ACh-induced contraction. Short-term treatment with the ER stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA, 100 mg/kg per day, intraperitoneally for 1 week) to OLETF rats at the chronic stage of the disease (12 months old) could suppress renal arterial contractions induced by Up4A and ACh. These results suggest that a long-term duration of disease may be important for the development of vascular dysfunction rather than aging per se. The early regulation of ER stress may be important against the development of diabetes-associated vascular dysfunction.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geriatrics and Gerontology