### Abstract

We investigate differences and similarities between fundamental fermions and adjoint fermions in SU(N) gauge theory. The gauge theory with fundamental fermions possesses Z_{N} symmetry only in the limit of infinite fermion mass, whereas the gauge theory with adjoint fermions does have the symmetry for any fermion mass. The flavor-dependent twisted boundary condition (FTBC) is then imposed on fundamental fermions so that the theory with fundamental fermions can possess Z_{N} symmetry for any fermion mass. We show similarities between FTBC fundamental fermions and adjoint fermions, using the Polyakov-loop extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model. In the mean-field level, the PNJL model with FTBC fundamental fermions has dynamics similar to the PNJL model with adjoint fermions for the confinement-deconfinement transition related to Z _{N} symmetry. The chiral property is somewhat different between the two models, but there is a simple relation between chiral condensates in the two models. As an interesting high-energy phenomenon, a possibility of the gauge symmetry breaking is studied for FTBC fundamental fermions.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 016002 |

Journal | Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology |

Volume | 88 |

Issue number | 1 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2013 Jul 1 |

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Nuclear and High Energy Physics
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

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## Cite this

*Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology*,

*88*(1), [016002]. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.88.016002