Current clinical and anatomical studies show that the venous problem associated with the deep inferior epigastric perforator flap results from poor midline-crossing. We examined the venous anatomy of the infraumbilical midline area and the dynamic venous flow of the deep inferior epigastric perforator flap in nine fresh cadavers. All nine abdominal specimens were harvested between the subcostal margin and the groin crease. Two specimens were used to analyze the abdominal venous anatomy, one of which was divided into two hemi-abdominal specimens. The remaining seven specimens were harvested as deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps with one major paraumbilical perforator. Venous cannulation and serial angiographic agent injection were performed in several conditions. Each specimen was radiographed using a soft X-ray system. For additional information, computed tomography (CT) angiography-visualized superficial inferior epigastric veins (SIEVs) and the supraumbilical branch were analyzed. We noted that the venous drainage between the bilateral SIEVs was easier to configure in the supraumbilical area than in the infraumbilical area. Only one to two short polygonal venous networks connect the bilateral superficial inferior epigastric veins in the supraumbilical area; however, long and multiple polygonal venous networks connect the bilateral superficial inferior epigastric veins in the infraumbilical area, which could be a predisposing factor for venous congestion. The mean distance from the umbilicus upper border to evident supraumbilical midline crossover was 18.39±4.03 mm (range: 10.10–28.49) in CT angiograms. In cadaver specimens, the mean distance was 10.87±4.85 mm (range: 4.6–18.9). Supraumbilical midline crossover was more favorable than infraumbilical midline crossover in venous flow.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)