Purpose: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of 3 % diquafosol sodium ophthalmic solution for dry eye, and to analyze the concentration of tear proteins and mucin-like substances after the treatment. Methods: Fifty eyes of 25 patients with dry eye syndrome were prospectively enrolled. The patients were treated with diquafosol solution at a dose of 1 drop in each eye 6 times daily for 4 weeks. The parameters of clinical efficacy were tear osmolarity, tear breakup time (BUT), fluorescein staining scores for the cornea and conjunctiva, Schirmer test values, and subjective symptoms evaluated using the ocular surface disease index (OSDI). Tears collected with Schirmer test strips were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the concentrations of the total protein and the 4 major tear proteins, namely, secretory IgA, lactoferrin, lipocalin-1, lysozyme, and N-acetyl-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), were measured. Neu5Ac is a major sialic acid, a marker of secretory mucins. Results: The BUT, keratoconjunctival staining scores, and Schirmer test values were improved with statistical significance after the treatment with diquafosol solution, while changes in the other parameters, including tear osmolarity, corneal staining scores, and OSDI scores were not significant. The Neu5Ac concentration was significantly increased, which was not accompanied by changes in tear proteins. Conclusions: Topical application of diquafosol significantly improved the clinical parameters of the BUT, keratoconjunctival staining scores, and Schirmer test values and was accompanied by increased sialic acid content in the tears of patients with dry eye.
- Diquafosol ophthalmic solution
- Dry eye syndrome
- Sialic acid
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