Direct synthesis of organodichlorosilanes by the reaction of metallic silicon, hydrogen chloride and alkene/alkyne and by the reaction of metallic silicon and alkyl chloride

Masaki Okamoto, Satoshi Onodera, Yuji Yamamoto, Eiichi Suzuki, Yoshio Ono

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Abstract

Dichloroethylsilane was synthesized by the reaction of metallic silicon, hydrogen chloride and ethylene using copper(I) chloride as the catalyst, the silicon conversion and the selectivity for dichloroethylsilane being 36 and 47%, respectively. At a lower reaction temperature or at a higher ratio of ethylene: hydrogen chloride a higher selectivity was obtained, however the silicon conversion was lower. The silicon-carbon bond formation is caused by the reaction of a surface silylene intermediate with ethylene. The reaction with propylene in place of ethylene gave dichloroisopropylsilane (22% selectivity) and dichloro-n-propyl-silane (8% selectivity) together with chlorosilanes. A part of the dichloroisopropylsilane is formed by the reaction of silicon, hydrogen chloride and isopropyl chloride formed by hydrochlorination of propylene. Use of acetylene instead of alkenes resulted in dichlorovinylsilane formation with a 34% selectivity. Alkyldichlorosilanes were also produced directly from silicon with alkyl chlorides, propyl and butyl chlorides. During the reaction the alkyl chloride is dehydrochlorinated over the surface of copper originating from the catalyst to afford hydrogen chloride and alkene. The hydrogen chloride formed participates in the formation of the silicon-hydrogen bond in alkyldichlorosilane, and the reaction of silicon, hydrogen chloride and alkene also causes alkyldichlorosilane formation. The reaction with isopropyl chloride gave a very high selectivity (85%) for dichloroisopropylsilane, the silicon conversion being 86%.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)71-78
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2001 Dec 1
Externally publishedYes

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)

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