Disseminated Toxoplasmosis associated with Haemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in a Patient with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus: A Case Report and Literature Review

Takuya Washino, Kei Mikita, Atsushi Kosaka, Naoya Sakamoto, Sentaro Iwabuchi, Fukumi Nakamura-Uchiyama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Disseminated toxoplasmosis associated with haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (DT-HLH) is rare and difficult to diagnose compared to disseminated toxoplasmosis or HLH presenting alone. Because of the limited number of reported cases, the clinical characteristics and outcomes of DT-HLH are unknown. We report a case of DT-HLH in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient who was successfully treated with early anti-toxoplasmic therapy and performed a comprehensive literature review. A 33-year-old Cameroonian woman was transferred to our hospital owing to HIV infection and encephalitis. Although she developed HLH, bone marrow biopsy did not reveal the cause. She was diagnosed as having DT-HLH via polymerase chain reaction testing of bone marrow biopsy tissue, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid. DT-HLH improved within the initial two weeks of treatment for toxoplasmosis (sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, trimethoprim 10 mg/kg/day and clindamycin 1,800 mg/day) before the introduction of antiretroviral therapy. To our knowledge, only eight cases of DT-HLH have been previously reported in the literature. Most patients died within three weeks of hospitalisation and were diagnosed by autopsy. Conversely, patients diagnosed antemortem were all treated and survived, including the currently reported patient. DT-HLH can lead to poor prognosis without early and proper treatment. Clinicians should consider toxoplasmosis in the differential diagnosis of HLH.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)176-179
Number of pages4
JournalInternational Journal of Infectious Diseases
Volume123
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Oct

Keywords

  • Disseminated toxoplasmosis
  • Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis
  • HIV
  • Toxoplasmic encephalitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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