Distinctive roles of d-Amino acids in the homochiral world: Chirality of amino acids modulates mammalian physiology and pathology

Jumpei Sasabe, Masataka Suzuki

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Living organisms enantioselectively employ l-amino acids as the molecular architecture of protein synthesized in the ribosome. Although l-amino acids are dominantly utilized in most biological processes, accumulating evidence points to the distinctive roles of d-amino acids in non-ribosomal physiology. Among the three domains of life, bacteria have the greatest capacity to produce a wide variety of damino acids. In contrast, archaea and eukaryotes are thought generally to synthesize only two kinds of d-amino acids: d-serine and d-aspartate. In mammals, d-serine is critical for neurotransmission as an endogenous coagonist of N-methyl d-aspartate receptors. Additionally, d-aspartate is associated with neurogenesis and endocrine systems. Furthermore, recognition of d-amino acids originating in bacteria is linked to systemic and mucosal innate immunity. Among the roles played by d-amino acids in human pathology, the dysfunction of neurotransmission mediated by d-serine is implicated in psychiatric and neurological disorders. Non-enzymatic conversion of l-aspartate or l-serine residues to their d-configurations is involved in age-associated protein degeneration. Moreover, the measurement of plasma or urinary d-/l-serine or d-/l-aspartate levels may have diagnostic or prognostic value in the treatment of kidney diseases. This review aims to summarize current understanding of d-amino-acid-associated biology with a major focus on mammalian physiology and pathology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalKeio Journal of Medicine
Volume68
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jan 1

Fingerprint

Pathology
Serine
Amino Acids
Aspartic Acid
Synaptic Transmission
Bacteria
Biological Phenomena
Mucosal Immunity
Endocrine System
Archaea
Neurogenesis
Kidney Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
Eukaryota
Ribosomes
Innate Immunity
Psychiatry
Mammals
Proteins
Acids

Keywords

  • Cell wall
  • Chirality
  • D-amino acid
  • Innate immunity
  • Neurobiology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Distinctive roles of d-Amino acids in the homochiral world : Chirality of amino acids modulates mammalian physiology and pathology. / Sasabe, Jumpei; Suzuki, Masataka.

In: Keio Journal of Medicine, Vol. 68, No. 1, 01.01.2019, p. 1-16.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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