Diabetes and hypertension have become the primary causes of chronic kidney disease worldwide. However, there are no established markers for early diagnosis or predicting renal prognosis. Here, we investigated the expression profiles of DNA repair and DNA methylation factors in human urine-derived cells as a possible diagnostic or renal prognosis-predicting marker. A total of 75 subjects, aged 63.3 ± 1.9 years old, were included in this study. DNA and RNA were extracted from 50 mL of urine samples. We evaluated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by the quantitative long distance-PCR method and performed real-time RT-PCR analysis to analyze the expression of renal cell-specific markers, DNA DSB repair factor KAT5, DNA methyltransferases DNMTs, and demethylation enzymes TETs. In patients with hypertension and diabetes, DNA DSBs of the nephrin gene increased with decreased urine KAT5/nephrin expression, consistent with our previous study (Cell Rep 2019). In patients with hypertension, DNA DSBs of the AQP1 gene were increased with elevated urine DNMTs/AQP1 and TETs/AQP1 expression. Moreover, urine DNMTs/AQP1 expression was significantly correlated with the annual eGFR decline rate after adjustment for age, baseline eGFR, the presence of diabetes and the amount of albuminuria, suggesting a possible role as a renal prognosis predictor.
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