Domain 4 (D4) of perfringolysin O to visualize cholesterol in cellular membranes — The update

Masashi Maekawa

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The cellular membrane of eukaryotes consists of phospholipids, sphingolipids, cholesterol and membrane proteins. Among them, cholesterol is crucial for various cellular events (e.g., signaling, viral/bacterial infection, and membrane trafficking) in addition to its essential role as an ingredient of steroid hormones, vitamin D, and bile acids. From a micro-perspective, at the plasma membrane, recent emerging evidence strongly suggests the existence of lipid nanodomains formed with cholesterol and phospholipids (e.g., sphingomyelin, phosphatidylserine). Thus, it is important to elucidate how cholesterol behaves in membranes and how the behavior of cholesterol is regulated at the molecular level. To elucidate the complexed characteristics of cholesterol in cellular membranes, a couple of useful biosensors that enable us to visualize cholesterol in cellular membranes have been recently developed by utilizing domain 4 (D4) of Perfringolysin O (PFO, theta toxin), a cholesterol-binding toxin. This review highlights the current progress on development of novel cholesterol biosensors that uncover new insights of cholesterol in cellular membranes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number504
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Volume17
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Mar 3
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Cholesterol probes
  • D4
  • Domain 4
  • Microscopy
  • Perfringolysin O
  • Theta toxin
  • Visualization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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