Double-blind comparative study on the care of the neonatal umbilical cord using 80% ethanol with or without chlorhexidine

T. Oishi, S. Iwata, M. Nonoyama, A. Tsuji, K. Sunakawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We conducted a double-blind comparative study on the effectiveness of 80% ethanol (EtOH), with or without chlorhexidine (CHD), in the prevention of neonatal umbilical colonization by Staphylococcus aureus, the most frequently isolated pathogen on the neonatal umbilicus in the early period. A total of 100 neonates born at the National Tokyo Medical Centre from March to May 2000 and nursed at a maternity ward were enrolled. Forty-eight were randomly allocated to the group for whom umbilical cord disinfection was performed using 80% EtOH containing 0.5% CHD (CHD group) and 52 to disinfection with 80% EtOH alone (EtOH group). The mothers of the neonates and the nursing staff were unaware as to which disinfectant was being used. Disinfection of the umbilicus and the surrounding area was done immediately after birth and twice daily thereafter, after bathing and in the evening, throughout the hospitalization period. Specimens for bacterial culture were taken from the umbilical cord and surrounding skin on day 4 or 5 after birth. As a disinfectant susceptibility test, we checked the minimum killing concentration (MKC) of CHD and EtOH. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups with respect to sex, gestation period, birthweight, APGAR score or delivery method. In the CHD group, S. aureus was isolated from 25% of the patients, while it was isolated from 57.7% in the EtOH group (P<0.001). In the CHD group, 50% of the S. aureus strains were MRSA, compared with 73.3% in the EtOH group (non-significant). All the S. aureus strains were killed by the combination of both CHD and EtOH at the concentrations used. In terms of the MKC90, there was no significant difference between the CHD group and the EtOH group. For the daily care of the neonatal umbilicus, disinfection using 80% EtOH containing CHD was found to be more effective than that using 80% EtOH alone in preventing colonization by S. aureus.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)34-37
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Hospital Infection
Volume58
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Sep
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Chlorhexidine
Umbilical Cord
Double-Blind Method
Ethanol
Umbilicus
Disinfection
Staphylococcus aureus
Disinfectants
Parturition
Newborn Infant
Tokyo
Nursing Staff
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Hospitalization
Mothers
Pregnancy
Skin

Keywords

  • Chlorhexidine
  • Disinfection
  • Double-blind comparative study
  • Ethanol
  • Neonate
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Umbilicus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Microbiology
  • Parasitology
  • Virology
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Double-blind comparative study on the care of the neonatal umbilical cord using 80% ethanol with or without chlorhexidine. / Oishi, T.; Iwata, S.; Nonoyama, M.; Tsuji, A.; Sunakawa, K.

In: Journal of Hospital Infection, Vol. 58, No. 1, 09.2004, p. 34-37.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Oishi, T. ; Iwata, S. ; Nonoyama, M. ; Tsuji, A. ; Sunakawa, K. / Double-blind comparative study on the care of the neonatal umbilical cord using 80% ethanol with or without chlorhexidine. In: Journal of Hospital Infection. 2004 ; Vol. 58, No. 1. pp. 34-37.
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AB - We conducted a double-blind comparative study on the effectiveness of 80% ethanol (EtOH), with or without chlorhexidine (CHD), in the prevention of neonatal umbilical colonization by Staphylococcus aureus, the most frequently isolated pathogen on the neonatal umbilicus in the early period. A total of 100 neonates born at the National Tokyo Medical Centre from March to May 2000 and nursed at a maternity ward were enrolled. Forty-eight were randomly allocated to the group for whom umbilical cord disinfection was performed using 80% EtOH containing 0.5% CHD (CHD group) and 52 to disinfection with 80% EtOH alone (EtOH group). The mothers of the neonates and the nursing staff were unaware as to which disinfectant was being used. Disinfection of the umbilicus and the surrounding area was done immediately after birth and twice daily thereafter, after bathing and in the evening, throughout the hospitalization period. Specimens for bacterial culture were taken from the umbilical cord and surrounding skin on day 4 or 5 after birth. As a disinfectant susceptibility test, we checked the minimum killing concentration (MKC) of CHD and EtOH. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups with respect to sex, gestation period, birthweight, APGAR score or delivery method. In the CHD group, S. aureus was isolated from 25% of the patients, while it was isolated from 57.7% in the EtOH group (P<0.001). In the CHD group, 50% of the S. aureus strains were MRSA, compared with 73.3% in the EtOH group (non-significant). All the S. aureus strains were killed by the combination of both CHD and EtOH at the concentrations used. In terms of the MKC90, there was no significant difference between the CHD group and the EtOH group. For the daily care of the neonatal umbilicus, disinfection using 80% EtOH containing CHD was found to be more effective than that using 80% EtOH alone in preventing colonization by S. aureus.

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