In this article, we argue that a consequence of Duterte's presidency is the further weakening of the party system in the Philippines, or the emergence of "anarchy of parties." Traditionally, Philippine presidents used their power of patronage in a quidpro-quo manner vis-A-vis the legislators to achieve presidents' goals, and this executivelegislative transaction was coordinated mainly through the president's party. However, evidence suggests that Duterte bypassed Congress to achieve his policies by riding on his popularity and did not have to use his power of pork to co-opt politicians. As a result, the president's party decreased its value as a coordination device for congressional affairs and party nominations at elections. Consequently, what we observe is an anarchy of parties where inter-party competition has become even more fluid and fragmented than before the Duterte presidency. We provide corroborative evidence to support our claim by mainly focusing on the 2019 midterm elections.
- party systems
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Political Science and International Relations