We aimed to determine the characteristics of quantitative pupillary response parameters other than amplitude of pupillary light reflex (PLR) early after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and their implications for predicting neurological outcomes early after cardiac arrest (CA). Fifty adults resuscitated after non-traumatic out-of-hospital CA from four emergency hospitals were enrolled. Pupil diameters, PLR, constriction velocity (CV), maximum CV (MCV), dilation velocity (DV), latency of constriction, and Neurological Pupil index (NPi) were quantitatively measured at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h post-ROSC using an automated pupillometer. Change over time of each parameter was compared between favorable (Cerebral Performance Category [CPC] 1 or 2) and unfavorable neurological outcome (CPC 3–5) groups. Prognostic values of 90-day favorable outcome by these parameters and when combined with clinical predictors (witness status, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, initial shockable rhythm, implementation of target temperature management) were tested. Thirteen patients achieved favorable outcome. CV, MCV, DV (P < 0.001), and NPi (P = 0.005) were consistently greater in the favorable group than in the unfavorable outcome group. Change over time was not statistically different between the groups in all parameters. CV, MCV, DV (ρ = 0.96 to 0.97, P < 0.001, respectively), and NPi (ρ = 0.65, P < 0.001) positively correlated with PLR. The prognostic value of 0-hour CV (area under the curve, AUC [95% confidence interval]: 0.92 [0.80–1.00]), DV (0.84 [0.68–0.99]), and NPi (0.88 [0.74–1.00]) was equivalent to that of PLR (0.84 [0.69–0.98]). Prognostic values improved to AUC of 0.95–0.96 when 0-hour PLR, CV, DV, or NPi was combined with clinical predictors. The 0-hour CV, MCV, and NPi showed equivalent prognostic values to PLR alone/in combination with clinical predictors. Using PLR among several quantitative pupillary response parameters for early neurological prognostication of post-CA patients is a simple and effective strategy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas